13

Unfortunately, your page doesn't mention this important phenomenon which is called беглая гласная 'a fleeting vowel.' The thing is like this: in some words, the stressed vowels o, e, and ё completely disappear, turn to null, when the form of the word changes and the stress moves onto another vowel. Your noun рот has its root stressed, but when we form the ...


11

This masculine nouns plural ending -á, as opposed to the traditional -и/-ы, is a comparatively recent innovation. Even in the 19th century it was correct to say and write учители (now it is "учителя"), домы, etc. Look at the Ngram Viewer graph of the usage of домы, it practically had stopped to be used by the 1920s, the same thing and the same ...


10

Despite they are completely interchangeable, the latter is a bit bookish. Ending -ьми in instrumental case plural is lost, except for these words: дочери - дочерьми / дочерями, лошади - лошадьми / лошадями, двери - дверьми / дверями, плети - плетьми / плетями (thanks @user31264), звери - зверями (preferable) / зверьми (obsolete), дети - детьми only, люди - ...


9

Because вернуться and вернуть are two related yet distinct verbs. "Вернуть" is to return in sense to give back something you've taken/borrowed beforehand. "Вернуться" is to be back. It looks like you've just checked some resource sort of translate.google.com, which is fine but not always provide you with all context needed. May be it would be a bit easier ...


9

It's a complicated matter, and as a native speaker I'm lucky not to think about it consciously. Typically, when a person is named after an inanimate object, the word behaves as if it were animate all along, so the option Не хочу учить валенков / лаптей / чурок is the correct one. When it's the other way round, things get more complicated. I'd say ...


6

Stats from the Russian National Corpus: Literary texts (Художественные тексты): дверями: 52%, дверьми: 48% Non-literary texts (Нехудожественные тексты): дверями: 74%, дверьми: 26% (Based on the first 100 documents.) This confirms that дверьми is more bookish (48% vs 26%) and that in literary texts the two are interchangeable (52% vs 48%). In other genres (...


5

В такой формулировке вопрос напрашивается на односложный ответ. Можно за минуту найти с десяток примеров окончания -ой из произведений уважаемых авторов, чего вполне достаточно, чтобы ответить: «нет, не была обязательна». И до Пушкина: Народ наш, тронутый заслугой толь великой, / Поставил над собой спасителя владыкой [Яков Княжнин]. И во времена ...


5

There is always a problem with "common rules" in Russian. As in Vysotsky's song: Мы говорим не "штормы", а "шторма" - Слова выходят коротки и смачны: "Ветра" - не "ветры" - сводят нас с ума, Из палуб выкорчевывая мачты. Many nouns have plural ending in -ы/-и, yet some only -а (e.g. sleeves = рукава), some both (storms = штормы/шторма; winds = ветры/...


4

Corrected: "посадке на Луну предшествовали тренировочные полеты". Dative case used: "to which [Moon landing] something [training flights] was something [forerunner]".


4

"Ту ночью" is ungrammatical. It should be either той ночью or в ту ночь. And no comma is needed. And it's more natural to put it before я видел кошку. Or, more colloquially, between я and видел.


4

Животное is a nominalised adjective. These retain their adjectival declension in Russian but are otherwise treated as nouns for all intents and purposes. So for example there's столовая the adjective, meaning "table" (as in "table spoon"), and there's столовая the noun, meaning "canteen". However, it's worth noting that животное and other taxonomical terms ...


4

Masculine nouns that have locative: снег в снегу о снеге дым в дыму о дыме лес в лесу о лесе плац на плацу о плаце ров во рву о рве берег на берегу о береге мир в миру о мире (here мир means "life outside church", in the meaning of peace and world, locative is not used) стог в стогу о стоге долг в долгу о долге вид на виду о виде пруд в пруду о пруде день ...


4

but берег has two syllables Maybe the reason is that аrchaic form of the word "берег" is "брег" But "на бреге" I think I found the answer: Особые формы [3] второго предложного падежа, отличные от основного предложного, существуют, однако, у очень ограниченной группы русских неодушевленных существительных, причем только в парадигме единственного числа. ...


3

These are 2 different verbs that form one of the pair of the verbs of motion. Бежа́ть-бéгать Бежа́ть: Я бегу, ты бежи́шь, он (она́, оно́) бежи́т, мы бежи́м, вы бежи́те, они́ бегу́т Бе́гать: Я бе́гаю, ты бе́гаешь, он (она́, оно́) бе́гает, мы бе́гаем, вы бе́гаете, они́ бе́гают Being the verbs of motion without prefixes, these verbs are both imperfective....


3

The ending changes similar to those of adjectives (зелёное, зелёные и т.п.) since this word was originally an adjective. You can think of it as short form of "животное существо" (animal creature).


3

Literal translation are not applicable in plenty of cases. One can help you to decline ночь and conjugate быть properly but the real answer is that it's better to be translated like: "Я [cегодня] плохо спал" or "мне плохо / мало спалось".


3

It will look like a speech from 19th century, possibly like a citation from some classical work. Yes, it will be noticed and sound strange.


3

Masculine nouns that have locative: снег в снегу о снеге дым в дыму о дыме хвост в хвосте о хвосте лес в лесу о лесе бор в бору о боре бал на балу о бале плац на плацу о плаце ров во рву о рве берег на берегу о береге мир в миру о мире (here мир means "life outside church", in the meaning of peace and world, locative is not used) стог в стогу о стоге долг в ...


2

Mentioning a period of time when something is happening you have to use творительный падеж. "Ночью" is that form of "ночь". Other examples: Я работаю днём ("днём" - творительный падеж от "день") Мы встретились вечером ("вечером" - творительный падеж от "вечер") Зимой у нас очень холодно ("зимой" - творительный падеж от "зима")


2

Foregoing the issue of your choice of words (as I don’t know what you are trying to convey), the difference between endings here is purely stylistic, as they are both perfectly correct. These two scream ‘literary’: Погода была холодна Ночь была коротка While these two will be by far more common in everyday speech: Погода была холодной Ночь была короткой


2

According to the "Правила русской орфографии и пунктуации. Полный академический справочник" (под редакцией Лопатина): Глаголы на −еть – непереходные 1-го спряжения – имеют значение ‘стать каким нибудь, приобрести признак’, например, "обессилеть". while Глаголы на −ить (в 1 м лице и отсутствует) – переходные 2-го спряжения – имеют значение ‘...


2

A human language develops over time, and its rules often become counterintuitive. Whether you want it or not, even native speakers have to look into the dictionaries. "Козёл", as a gymnastic tool, is a legitimate inanimate noun. Therefore "прыгать через козёл" is totally legit and even should be preferred. However, many people, including myself, have a ...


1

Usually noun in such usage just preserves the category it belongs "originally", so it's just Я вижу всех твоих тараканов. (since "таракан" is animate) - the same about "поставить на доску ската" - and Не хочу учить валенки. (since "валенки" is inanimate) However I can not help but notice that, while grammatically, at least second phrase sounds ...


1

Accusative is governed by another verb, synonymous to предшествовать, namely предварять посадку на Луну предваряли тренировoчные полеты Semantically they're not completely identical, but still can be used as substitutes of each other.


1

This answer is not about declension of adjectives, but about idiomatic translations of "I had a short night" Here are some options to consider: Я мало спал [сегодня/прошлой ночью] - I didn't get much sleep [last night]. Я не выспался [сегодня] - I didn't get enough sleep [last night]. Мне не дали выспаться - My sleep was interrupted (either by ...


1

Well, it's great that you recognise the as a Fem. Sg. Instrumental. In my opinion, the difference between Instrumental Vs Nominative predicate in Russian is a difference between perfected (non-present tempus) and imperfected aspects of the phrase. The former is similar to essive predicate in Estonian and Finnish languages. Cf: У меня была длинная ночь (...


1

The instrumental case is used when something happens during one of the following periods of time: утро, день, вечер, ночь, зима, весна, лето, осень. Examples: Прошлой весной мне исполнилось четыре года. (Last spring I turned 4 years old.) Зимой я выхожу на пенсию. (This winter I retire from work.) Ночью надо спать, а не дрочить. (At night you/one should ...


1

While I agree to most extend with all answers proovided, I still insist that in colloquial speech not always but pretty often this does not sounds outdated. It is just something quick you don't even notice. Pretty much like in colloquial English it is acceptable to ignore some of grammar rules. Check out, for instance, this phrases: Что вот с тобой не так?...


1

I'll try to explain, but that's my first answer at language-section of stack, so be free to ask me Местный падеж is similar to Предложный падеж in russian so word will answer to question Where?, but main difference that Местный падеж give us information about item's position. Anyway, this difference is so small, that there're no Местный падеж in russian, ...


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