9

You are right, that the current style of romanization of Russian surnames is "-ov" (transliteration), while in the past it used to be "-off" (quasi-phonetic). See this paper in French (with English abstract) on the subject. Note, that until recently when Russians were issued travel documents, their names were romanized in French style, i.e. "-ow" would have ...


8

Your Russian teacher was not a mathematician, so she probably guessed that the name is "kholmogorov", as there is a Russian word "kholm" meaning a hill. The correct name is Kolmogorov, and you pronounce it roughly as "Kalmagoraf"


7

Или́й. Вы же не будете пытаться образовать форму Марей от Марья или Дарей от Дарья, но возьмете формы Марий и Дарий от полногласных Мария и Дария. Пока без источников. Так что возможно, это не более, чем мое добросовестное заблуждение, но мне до сего дня в голову не приходил иной возможный вариант.


5

Sergei Rachmaninov (Rachmaninoff) emigrated from Russia to the United States after the Communist revolution of 1917. He used Latin script to spell his name as "Sergei Rachmaninoff". For example, the following books about him were published in NY: Rachmaninoff’s recollections told by Oscar von Riesemann, L. — N. Y., 1934 Bertensson S. and Leyda J., ...


5

Происхождение фамилии «Колмогоров» связано с топонимом «Колмогоры», а он, вероятно, происходит от финского kolme «три» (т. е. «Трехгорка»), или от kalma, «могила», и kari, «утес». «Холмогоры» – русификация Происхождение от топонима Кроме Колмогор (Холмогор) в Архангельской области, топоним известен в Кемеровской. Деревни Колмогорово также существуют в Сибири ...


2

The composer was advertised as Rachmaninoff, signed autographs as Rachmaninoff, and has Rachmaninoff on his tombstone. I think his personal preference is clear.


2

Actually the word таль is present in Russian, however I cannot tell if the origin of your family name is connected with any of the meanings: There is a term таль: "Грузоподъемное устройство с ручным или моторным приводом." According to Vasmer it is known used from 1720 (many sailor's terms were borrowed at those times). In some dialects the word таль is ...


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