42

Russian has different transcription systems for different languages. Some of them (Japanese, Korean, Chinese) have been developed by a single person or by a group of scholars, who had invested some thought and consideration into them, and had them codified. Some of them (Greek, Latin, English) have been in use for quite a long time, so the rules have just ...


28

Actually, the year is not "around 1915", but the beginning of 1918 when the orthography reform began. Before 1918 "он" was written as "онъ", and naturally before 1918 "он" was not used. Have a look: After 1918, Ъ at the end of words after "hard" consonants was used mainly by emigrants in their printed publications. All the instances of "он" used before 1918 ...


23

Yes, it's Russian in the pre-reform orthography. The reform was in 1918, so this is just a hundred years old Russian. It's easy to understand, just as it's easy to understand a hundred years old English. The main difference from the Modern Russian is the use of some letters, which were removed from the alphabet in 1918. They were substituted with other ...


20

Окрест - не только корень, но и устаревшее слово, синоним слова вокруг. Толковый словарь Ушакова: ОКРЕ́СТ (книжн. поэт. устар.). 1. предлог с род. Вокруг, по соседству от чего-нибудь. «Окрест него дремучий бор.» Жуковский. 2. нареч. Вокруг, по близости, по соседству. «Окрест ни один не мерцает маяк.» А.Блок. Этимологически это слово заимствовано из ...


20

As you can see from your own question, Russians indeed do spell жирный as жырный sometimes. It’s just that people sometimes tend to ignore strict orthography rules for convenience or fun — especially in “light-weight” e-message communication. In this particular case it’s more about fun. This intentionally illiterate spelling is a part of so-called “...


18

There are formal rules for practical transcription of Turkic proper names into Russian: Турецко-русская практическая транскрипция According to that table, ğ is transcribed as г and in rare cases as й. The choice of г brings to the syllable -ган which is more typical for Russian words than -йан and better combines with the previous syllable, ending with -о....


18

To place emphasis on this word These patterns are called "Sensational spelling" and "Cacography". It is not a unique Russian language trait: Cacography is deliberate comic misspelling, a type of humour Sensational spelling is the deliberate spelling of a word in an incorrect or non-standard way for special effect People change spelling ...


16

Not redundant, does affect. The soft mark is the reason чьи is pronounced [tɕji] and not [tɕi]. Basically, ь between a consonant and a vowel is pronounced [j] — an actual separate iotic consonant, as opposed to just the preceding one getting palatalised: пьяный ['pʲja-] vs. пятна ['pʲa-]. The principle works with the ь-unaffected sibilants too. Now the ...


14

As for me, I've never encountered the word "hushers" before, but since you are writing about ч, ш, щ, ж, I guess you mean what is called шипящие звуки in Russian. Шипящие звуки can be translated as "hissing sounds" into English, but there is a conceptual difference between the ideas behind the English hissing and Russian шипящий: in English snakes hissssssss,...


12

(In addition to shabunc's answer.) Aside of just fun, жырный is used mostly when they want to stress that it's not just "some bold X" but an extremely huge and/or explicit X. E.g.: Жырный минус in your example is not just "whatever bold minus" but an enormously stressed/big one, i.e. it's the worst possible assessment for "the rest" of the restaurant. ...


11

There are two almost synonymous¹ verbs: расче́сть and рассчита́ть. The former decomposes into morphemes рас-чес-ть, the latter – рас-с-чит-а-ть. The former produces a noun расчёт in an obvious way, the latter – рассчёт. Both were equally widely used until the early XX century: расчетъ and разсчетъ as they were spelled at that time. So the absence of word ...


11

The reason is purely historical. Before the orthography reform of 1918, the two words mentioned by @КуЪ were written as тушъ and тушь, accordingly. Those two writings are relics of the law of open syllables which, among other things, forbade the words to end with consonants in early Slavic languages. The letters ъ and ь denoted reduced vowels present in ...


11

As a Turkic, I say that it is completely true to consider his name as Эрдоган. The name in Turkish is "Erdoğan". Note that the letter "ğ" is a sound most like the French "r" and is also a deformation of the sounds "g" and "q" which in today's Turkish dialect turned not to sound at all! Also note that Russian and Turkic peoples had many encounters during ...


10

The reason why a special letter was introduced for a foreign sound is quite simple, the classical Cyrillic alphabet included all the letters of the Greek alphabet, including Ѳ and Ф. In the modern Russian, [f] is not used almost exclusively in loan words, as you put it, it is used in numerous original Russian words and in different suffixes, only it is ...


10

В советских изданиях "бог" всегда писался со строчной буквы, потому что "бога нет". В дореволюционных изданиях и пост-советских (современных) изданиях "Бог" пишется с заглавной буквы (если имеется в виду христианство, где Бог един и любые упоминания Бога относятся к Нему), причем и местоимения, относящиеся к Нему (Его, Ему, Он и т. п.) (т.е. слово "Бог" ...


10

Since on the source site you gave a link to there is a typo or an OCR mistake in the word установяенія instead of the correct установленія, I decided to check the original printed version of the manifesto if также is also a digitizing mistake. I found it in a scan of "Полное собраніе законовъ Россійской Имперіи" and it is really также there (scan ...


9

A soft or hard sign before a vowel indicates the palatal approximant [j]. This is the first sound in the English word "year" which makes it distinct from "ear". Russian words лёд "ice" and льёт "(he) pours" are pronounced [lʲɵt] and [lʲjɵt], appropriately. They only differ in that one sound. Hard sign in modern Russian is only used on morpheme boundaries, ...


9

It's not irregular but all you can do is just to memoize such cases. While the ст -> т happens in some verbs like "плести"/ "плету", "цвести"/"цвету", "мести"/"мету" for instance, a change to д is not that rare as well, check out for instance: блюсти / блюду брести / бреду красть / краду прясть / пряду So it's not something exotic. Here's a small ...


8

В советской литературе слово "бог" писалось с маленькой не потому, что "бога нет", а потому что христианский бог Яхве (Иегова) рассматривался точно так же, как и все другие боги, и ничем от них не отличался. То есть, конкретно христианский Яхве рассматривался не как некое верховное божество, а лишь как один из множества богов. По этой же причине любой, кто ...


8

Preposition со is used: 1)before words which begin with с,з,ш,ж + consonant or with consonant щ со славой, со звездой, со шкафа, со жгутом, со щами. 2)before the genitive and instrumental case of the following one-syllable words: лев, лёд, лён, лоб, мох, ров, рот(схватка со львом, виски со льдом) 3) with мной, мною(со мной, со мною) 4)with forms of ...


8

Конечно это ошибки. и БОРЮЩИХСА (со старомосковским акцентом) впридачу, в сильно двусмысленной фразе борющихся с ними. Покольку плакат, насколько можно судить по тексту, выпущен в Британии, орфографические ошибки вызваны, очевидно, плохим знакомством с русским алфавитом и, видимо языком тоже, и потому неумением различать похожие по начертанию буквы. Во ...


7

On modern usage of Ы-words. The absense of words starting from letter Ы was challenged by many creative people in literature and cinema. The letter itself become a codename for "cover operation" in "Операция "Ы" movie and a name of a fictional animal Вепрь Ы from the SF-book by Strugatskies "Трудно быть богом". To my mind, the most influential nowadays is ...


7

These vowels are iotized after ь but not after consonants. So the soft sign serves to indicate iotation. чья = [ч'й'а] чьё = [ч'й'о] By contrast, чё = [ч'о]


7

Ну, тут на мой взгляд, не может быть правоты или неправоты никакой, кроме статистической. По факту в любых прилагательных, образованных от начинающихся с заглавной буквы в английском технологий, мы всё пишем в нижнем регистре. Примеры: Я не хочу возиться с этими спринговыми конфигами. Там котлиновый стек. То есть, вы правы и пишется "рельсовый".


6

Тоска - [tʌˈska] стеснение духа, томление души, мучительная грусть; душевная тревога, беспокойство, боязнь, скука, горе, печаль, нойка сердца, скорбь. further reading a definition from the dictionary by Dal you can find here and good web formatted description and further meanings you can find here сильное душевное томление, душевная тревога в соединении ...


6

This depends on which grammatical role you are using как псы in. If you mean your have buddies who are very loyal to you, and верные как псы is just a synonym to очень верные, you should not use a comma here. Compare: Черные как ночь (= очень чёрные), могучие «абердино-ангусы», под ними земля дрожала, до тонны весом быки. If you mean your buddies are ...


6

Не нужен. Это словосочетание из наречия и причастия.Розенталь: Различаются сложные прилагательные, образующие одно слово (со слитным или дефисным написанием, см. выше), и словосочетания, состоящие из наречия на -о (-е) и прилагательного или причастия (с раздельным написанием); к наречию, играющему роль отдельного члена предложения, можно поставить ...


6

After a couple of days of thinking over it all I have finally decided to put down the whole story of кы, гы, хы the way I understand it. My story will begin with what the answer by Quassnoi begins, with some additions, but then it will continue, from the point when Quassnoi stopped. It will be long, it will require close reading, and it will be very ...


6

Before the standardization both forms, черт/чёрт and чорт were in actual use, like we see from this google ngram chart: (Strictly speaking, we should sort out черт derived from черта but this won't change the very fact that both form co-existed.) In Russian grammar there's a concept called проверочные слова - in short it's about existence of words that ...


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