25

You got the cases right in all three sentences. I'll try to provide English translations which would be as close to the literal meaning of the Russian phrases as possible. Please note that they are not actual translations, they are English approximations of grammatical structure of the original Russian phrases. У меня́ есть де́ньги. // There are money ...


22

The new vocative has nothing to do with the old vocative (whose forms would've been *Маше, *Зино and *Димо, indistinguishable by ear from the nominative but probably reflected in writing). If we are to count all such case-like forms limited to a single paradigm and/or context, we'd end up with quite a few: partitive (чашка чаю vs. вкус чая), locative (...


19

Two objections to people dismissing this "because it's an adverb": Adverb or not, it started out as a noun and a preposition, and the case form still has to be explained somehow. More importantly: you can say в жёны is also an adverb, and в пионеры too, but what about (произведён) в полковники? Or Pushkin's мы все глядим в Наполеоны? Are they really just ...


18

I totally agree with the answer Nikolay provided, I just want to add one other important points made by opponents of calling this new forms vocative case, here's a quote: Основное различие – с существительными в новой звательной форме, в отличие от звательного падежа в древнерусском и других славянских языках («Боже правый»), невозможно согласовать ...


14

Negative construction with "нет" always needs genitive in Russian and answers the question "нет кого/чего", and not "нет кто" which is ungrammatical: Нет кого? - Нет мамы. However you can say "Мама не здесь" (as opposite of "мама здесь") which is totally correct.


14

Десятка - typically, an informal reference to something numbered 10 (like a bus following route 10) or about a 10 ruble banknote (in the past, when it mattered more) - now it can sometimes informally mean 10 thousand rubles; inform. about sentencing to 10 years of imprisonment (ему дали "десятку"). Десяток - 10 pieces (similar to a dozen eggs etc.), 10 ...


14

Your guess is both grammatically correct and idiomatic: Я хочу́ подари́ть э́ту кни́гу ма́ме мое́й подру́ги (на Рождество́). You used the dative case for ма́ма -> ма́ме 'to mother' and the genitive case for подру́га -> подру́ги 'of girlfriend.' You can stack up genitives to describe more complex relations: Подру́га бра́та однокла́ссника мое́й ...


13

При переходных глаголах с отрицанием в одних случаях явно преобладает употребление родительного падежа дополнения, в других – употребление винительного падежа, в третьих – наблюдается факультативное их использование. Падеж дополнения при переходных глаголах с отрицанием (Розенталь Д.Э. и др. Справочник.) But your observation is correct -- usually genitive ...


13

Чем-то does not mean "somewhat" or "slightly". It means "somehow", "in some vague or elusive way", which is not quite the same. It's quite independent of the predicate, whether adjectival or verbal. You'd also say он чем-то меня раздражает ~"something about him irritates me". In fact, что-то wouldn't mean "slightly" either here. It's more of an expression ...


13

This sentence is grammatically sound. The reason for the apparent disagreement is the following. The verb предпочитать takes two objects: a direct object in the accusative (зелёный чай) an optional indirect object in the dative (чёрному [чаю]) For inanimate masculine gender objects, the accusative coincides with the the nominative (зелёный чай) and not ...


13

It's totally grammatical, in theory ambiguous but however on practice, since it's way more common to see a rubbish chute ruined by people rather than a rubbish suite filled up with human beings - this disambiguation is virtually negligible. Context is important. Compare following text snippets: Полянка была замусорена студентами. Лужайка была завалена ...


12

Это зависит от смысла того, что вы хотите сказать. Если речь идёт о мыслях, то нужно использовать местный падеж: В моём мозгу крутилась мысль о сдаче в плен. В моём мозгу я уже раздевал любимую. Использование предложного падежа здесь неправильно. Если речь идёт в химическом составе мозга, нейронах, либо о пользе/вреде мозга, то используется предложный ...


12

Many loanwords don't decline in Russian, mostly those that don't intuitively fit into one of the existing paradigms (no regular Russian neuter noun ends in -о preceded by a vowel), and to see why, it's helpful to turn to the social history of the Russian language. Most early adopters of loanwords were people fluent in at least one foreign language, and ...


12

Nominative doesn't work for the same reason it doesn't work in this English statement: *The dress is red colour. But we can make it work using 'of': The dress is of red colour. I don't know why English loses the 'of' when the statement is converted into a question: What colour is this dress? Other languages keep it: De quelle couleur est cette robe? ...


11

You are right that Лора declines in Russian, and here are the rules (source: http://www.nazovite.ru/sklonenie/) The following personal names decline: all names (masculine and feminine, Russian and non-Russian) which end in -а or -я. This is your case. masculine names which end in any consonant (согласный), including -й. Feminine names which end in -ь (...


11

But just today, I notice that the locative case isn't used once it is modified by an adjective? Not quite, it's totally correct to say На белом/рыхломadj. снегУ На крутомadj. валУ В горячемadj. боЮ В дремучемadj. лесУ На нашемposs. pron. векУ В новомadj. портУ В дальнемadj. краЮ В цветущемadj. садУ В липкомadj. потУ На своёмposs. pron....


11

You can interpret "коробки" as a plural of "коробка" or "коробок", so it's obviously a trick question. With seeds either one would make sense. The examples you've found are indeed utterly incorrect and your friend is wrong as well - she simply guessed.


10

The relevant part of the phrase translates as "he accuses his wife of this". Обвинять is a polyvalent verb which accepts up to two objects (one direct and one prepositional): обвинять кого? (acc.) в чём? (prep.) Compare English verb "to accuse someone of something". So those are two different objects and they don't have to agree with each other.


10

Стоить может управлять винительным падежом, «стоит одну копейку», но может управлять и родительным, когда речь идёт не о денежной стоимости, а о ценности, важности, т. е. в переносном значении: «Это стоило ему многих усилий». В выражении дорогого стоит «дорогое» значит «что-то дорогое», и может, в принципе, относиться к чему угодно, в зависимости от ...


10

“Учить” can mean ‘to teach’, but also it can mean ‘to learn, to study’. When it means ‘to teach’, it is usually followed by two objects, an Accusative object (the person being taught), and a Dative one (the subject taught): She teaches me the Russian language. Она учит меня (Acc.) русскому языку (Dat.). When “учить” means ‘to learn, to study’, it is ...


10

Домодедово is the proper name of the airport, which is technically called Москва (Домодедово). It's not an "airport serving Domodedovo" (although it does serve it among other cities of course), it's an airport called "Domodedovo". If we were speaking about, say, "Domodedovo government" (администрация Домодедова) or "Domodedovo police" (полиция Домодедова), ...


10

You guess is absolutely correct, technically there's an other valid option: Я хочу подарить эту книгу подругиной маме. But while this is grammaticaly valid talking of specifically word подруга it's very unlikely one will choose second form over the first one - подругиной sounds clumsy. But I've mentioned this because in some cases, for instance, with ...


10

Despite they are completely interchangeable, the latter is a bit bookish. Ending -ьми in instrumental case plural is lost, except for these words: дочери - дочерьми / дочерями, лошади - лошадьми / лошадями, двери - дверьми / дверями, плети - плетьми / плетями (thanks @user31264), звери - зверями (preferable) / зверьми (obsolete), дети - детьми only, люди - ...


10

In the russian language, "завтрак", "обед" and "ужин" have the same spelling in nominative and accusative cases. And in your examples ("на завтрак", "на обед" and "на ужин") these words are in accusative case.


10

Транскрипция только польских фамилий даёт в русском варианте "-ий", и если это делается через английский язык, то в случаях, когда польское происхождение носителя фамилии хорошо известно, например Збигнев Бжезинский. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Польско-русская_практическая_транскрипция В нашем же случае автор (по википедии) - немецкого происхождения.


9

The point is, in your sentences there are no two dative objects referring to the same predicate. Нужно ("is needed") is the predicate, it has one Dative object ("for whom"). The subject of нужно is, naturally, in the Nominative case ("what"). But in your examples the subject is expressed by a verbal phrase, an infinitive + its objects, that is why нужно ...


9

The original phrase can be extended/modified: Лопоухий косой за песчаной косой пал под острой косой косой бабы с косой. The updated phrase uses the word "косой" with 5 different meanings. Extra words in the phrase help a non-native speaker to identify the meaning of each "косой" instance. Translation: лопоухий косой - lop-eared hare за песчаной ...


9

With instrumental, с means "with". With genitive, с means "from" or "off" — that is, moving away from a thing's surface (as opposed to из which is for moving away from inside a thing). You take a thing "off" a shelf (с полки) but "from" a cupboard (из шкафа). For all intents and purposes, this с is a different preposition than the one meaning "with". Among ...


9

First, a side note: unlike most other languages, you don't use имею in Russian unless there's a reason to. See this question: Иметь vs у меня for physical things In your case, you say У меня есть основания ей не верить Now, имею (or быть in proximal possessive sense) does not govern genitive when positive, but does when negative. That's how the ...


9

"about it", is usually translated as "об этом" Could also be про это. There's even a poem Про это by Mayakovskij. why there is no noun after a demonstrative pronoun? Because Это may also be used in place of a noun. Sort of This or That. For example, Это кажется мне странным. --> It seems strange to me. Что Вы под этим подразумеваете? --> What do ...


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