42

Russian has different transcription systems for different languages. Some of them (Japanese, Korean, Chinese) have been developed by a single person or by a group of scholars, who had invested some thought and consideration into them, and had them codified. Some of them (Greek, Latin, English) have been in use for quite a long time, so the rules have just ...


18

It is perfectly acceptable in modern Russian and you will rarely find any materials with consistently spelt Ё. The letter Ё has a difficult history: it was never really obligatory. I prefer to always type it explicitly. But according to modern orthography it is completely acceptable to write е instead, except in foreign words, names which can be read ...


18

There are formal rules for practical transcription of Turkic proper names into Russian: Турецко-русская практическая транскрипция According to that table, ğ is transcribed as г and in rare cases as й. The choice of г brings to the syllable -ган which is more typical for Russian words than -йан and better combines with the previous syllable, ending with -о....


15

The word "гипподром" is still used as a historical term for ancient stadiums for horse racing. The reason for dropping "г" was French influence where "h" is not pronounced (and the word hippodrome is not an exception). French was heavily used by Russian aristocracy and actually a lot of words were borrowed in French spelling. Even English names, like Ньютон ...


15

You could probably work something out from etymology, but generally speaking no, except this can only happen for unstressed vowels. Russian spelling is mostly morphological, so a good rule of thumb for stem vowels is to try and find a word that has the vowel in question stressed, though this isn’t always possible. For prefixes and suffixes you’ll just have ...


13

Yes, there is verb "сечь", which means "to lash". "Cёк" is past tense and masculine-gendered form of it and, therefore, means "He lashed" (formally speaking, "he lashed" will be "он сёк" in Russian).


12

Не существует. Блять — это визуальная рифма с ебать! и твою мать, и отсюда, наверно, возникло представление о том, будто "так оно пишется, когда междометие", но нет, оно воспринималось и воспринимается как "слово с ошибкой", даже когда с этой ошибкой употребляется намеренно.


12

The bird of prey is definitely called змееяд or орёл-змееяд in Russian. I've never seen it called змееед, and it's not mentioned in the dictionaries. It uses the OCS rendition of the second root, similar to травоядное, тунеядец etc. If we're talking about a constructed word meaning "snake eater" in general, then it would make sense to render it змееед in ...


12

This tradition comes way back from Old Church Slavonic. OCS was conceived as a literary language for translation of the Scripture. As such, though it was based on the Slavic dialect spoken in vicinity of what is now Thessaloniki, Greece, it had several features which made it a little bit different from the live spoken language. Mainly it was wide usage of ...


12

Приставки, оканчивающиеся на согласную, для целей правописания можно разделить на "исконно русские" и "заимствованные". После "русских" приставок, таких как пред-, под- и пр. пишется буква ы, например предыстория. Но после "заимствованных", к примеру, суб-, супер- и пр. нужно писать и, например, суперинтендант. Исключениями являются приставки сверх- и меж- ...


12

Imparisyllabic Latin words (meaning words having an extra syllable in genitive compared to nominative) are usually cited in their genitive form, as it's usually a more accurate representation of the word's etymology. Church Slavonic authors chose to use Latin genitive stems for all Church Slavonic forms, including the nominative. That's why we have Venus (...


11

Letter ё is optional, it is usually replaced by е. We have a number of questions about this letter on this site, for example: Using written е instead of ë, Is 'ё' a distinct letter, or is it just 'е' with a diaeresis?, What are all the times where "е" changes to "ё"?. In short, letter ё is always used only in ...


11

Слово Париж пришло в современный русский через польский, в котором оно звучит (ну, практически) так же - Paryż. Гипотеза @user31264 не выдерживает критики и проходит по разряду любительской этимологии. И например, у чехов слово Парид - Paříž - ř уж никак не объяснить "потому что так франки на самом деле произносили". Есть полуапокрифическая гипотеза, что ...


11

As a Turkic, I say that it is completely true to consider his name as Эрдоган. The name in Turkish is "Erdoğan". Note that the letter "ğ" is a sound most like the French "r" and is also a deformation of the sounds "g" and "q" which in today's Turkish dialect turned not to sound at all! Also note that Russian and Turkic peoples had many encounters during ...


11

Because Russian transliterations are not consistent. The letter ё didn't make it into Russian before late XVIII century. Church Slavonic language didn't use the sound cluster this letter denotes. When it came to use, the letter ё had replaced the etymological е in native Russian words. English names in yo, ye etc. (and names borrowed through English, ...


10

Предлог "лишь" подчеркивает малость, незначительность. Предлог "только" не имеет такой окраски. Пример: Пропускать только посетителей с билетами! Здесь использование предлога "лишь" недопустимо, поскольку посетителей с билетами может быть много. Летать только на исправных самолётах. Аналогично. Исправных самолётов может быть больше, чем неисправных, ...


10

Ё changes into non-stressed "е" after ш and ж. You get same result with лизать: Я лижу, ты лижешь, мы лижем. When the word is one-syllable, so it's obviously stressed, it remains Ё. Although I can think of only one example: ты лжёшь, вы лжёте


10

Why on Earth it should be? Just because in other languages -ato ending are OK for nouns? Why банан and not банана? Or кофе but not кофи? This is emotional part of an answer, and as of the facts - well, it was derived from French tomate (which is something mentioned in Russian wiktionary by the way) and in French it was already pronounced pretty much the ...


10

Both forms are correct. The "accent" is a stress mark. Stress marks are omitted in most books. They are printed in books for beginner readers, and in words where a change of stress would change the meaning.


10

Since on the source site you gave a link to there is a typo or an OCR mistake in the word установяенія instead of the correct установленія, I decided to check the original printed version of the manifesto if также is also a digitizing mistake. I found it in a scan of "Полное собраніе законовъ Россійской Имперіи" and it is really также there (scan ...


9

Rosenthal, 28: С прописной буквы пишутся местоимения Вы и Ваш для выражения вежливого обращения к одному лицу, например: Прошу Вас, уважаемый Сергей Петрович… При обращении к нескольким лицам эти местоимения пишутся со строчной буквы, например: Прошу вас, уважаемые Сергей Петрович и Павел Иванович… Note that this rule is only applied to вы used ...


9

Сorrect Russian spelling of the last name of the US President-elect, Donald Trump - Трамп.


8

Yes, both йа and йо are used in russian writing. They are used mostly in loaned words. Йа (and its counterpart ьа) are used when transcribing foreign proper names only: Брайан, Гайана, Майами, Яньань Though I have found a neologism грабьармия which is pronounced as "грабь'армия" without я in the middle of the word. Йо is used in such nouns as йог, ...


8

It's подынтерфейс, similar to подынтервал and подынтегральный. Rosenthal, 33: После приставок, оканчивающихся на согласную, вместо и пишется ы в соответствии с произношением, например: играть – подыграть, разыграть, сыграть; искать – отыскать, подыскать, разыскать: идейный – безыдейный; индукционный – безындукционный; интегральный – подынтегральный; ...


8

Согласно топонимическому словарю Е.М.Поспелова "современная французская форма названия - Пари (Paris); принятая в русском языке форма Париж усвоена в искаженном виде через польское посредство". В 58 - 51 гг. до н.э. римские войска Юлия Цезаря покорили Галлию. Попав на пять столетий под власть Рима, Лютеция Паризиорум стали называть поселение римляне. В 358 ...


8

These are two completely different words. Эго is a noun which means ego. In most cases, it means a (usually boosted) sense of self-importance, for example у него непомерно раздутое эго. In Russian, эго in such meaning has negative connotations. Sometimes эго means Freudian or philosophical concept of ego. Это means it. (There are other, similar, meanings.) ...


8

Конечно это ошибки. и БОРЮЩИХСА (со старомосковским акцентом) впридачу, в сильно двусмысленной фразе борющихся с ними. Покольку плакат, насколько можно судить по тексту, выпущен в Британии, орфографические ошибки вызваны, очевидно, плохим знакомством с русским алфавитом и, видимо языком тоже, и потому неумением различать похожие по начертанию буквы. Во ...


7

There is no difference in pronunciation but "ь" is kept merely for the sake of consistency. You see, most infinitives end in "-ть". And the 3rd person singular/plural end in -т : to love = любить he loves = он любит And now, the magic! To form a reflexive verb form you add 'сь' after a vowel and 'ся' after a consonant. So.... говорить + ся = говориться ...


7

This is actually a subject of "holy wars" between Russians. Some people insist that using ё must be mandatory, because replacing it by е can change the meaning of a sentence. The most famous example: Завтра Петербург, наконец, передохнёт от жары. This is also quite important in books for children who are just learning to read: they get really confused ...


7

On modern usage of Ы-words. The absense of words starting from letter Ы was challenged by many creative people in literature and cinema. The letter itself become a codename for "cover operation" in "Операция "Ы" movie and a name of a fictional animal Вепрь Ы from the SF-book by Strugatskies "Трудно быть богом". To my mind, the most influential nowadays is ...


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