Well, it is just a grammatical gender indication.
Доброе утро is "доброе" because "утро" is neuter in Russian.
Добрый день and добрый вечер contain добрый since both "день" and "вечер" are masculine.
Check out this article for further information.
Still, there's one subtle issue I want you to be warned about.
While it is grammatically valid to say "...
Yes, it is quite common in conversational speech:
Он знает английский. = He knows English.
Она предпочитает русский. = She prefers Russian.
Note that language names or nationalities are not capitalised in Russian. Neither are months or days or the week.
The salutation Ура! Ура! Ура! repeated three times (троекратное ура) is a usual greeting in the army used during parades, official meetings and performed by a chorus of military men. While being spoken the reverberation of voices makes it as if several sounds of р-р were pronounced. The interjection corresponds to the English "Hooray! (Hurrah)" expressing ...
This is воинское приветствие ("military salute").
When standing in present arms position, the military salute is performed by assuming position of attention, looking the senior in the face and turning one's head as the senior moves. No hand gestures are made.
The military regulations require that the military salute is conveyed "in a precise and dashing ...
"Ravnenie na" Равнение на...
Something like "alignment to"
This means all soldiers must look at a certain mark, most common are Alignment to the left / right / tribune / commander. You can see this on military parades a lot. Here's an example https://focus.ua/files/images/0/-87397.jpg Soldiers here were given a command to align to tribune and salute the ...
I'd say it is not the best choice. "Молодец" has a slightly patronizing tone: it is OK to use it to your children and friends, maybe colleagues and subordinates.
However, if an adult person is not your friend/colleague and/or especially if you are in no position to judge their work (if you hear a concert from a virtuoso, chance is the guy is a much better ...
It makes no sense as a standalone sentence. One can definitely think of a situation in which these two sentences might sound normal or at least not unnatural.
(after a conversation)
Ну, до свидания. (well, goodbye!)
Да, до свидания. (yes, goodbye!)
Does "доброе утро" mean "good morning"?
Yes, good morning.
You may use "Здравствуйте" (Hello) or "Доброе утро/Добрый день/Добрый вечер" (Good morning/Good afternoon/Good evening) to greet any person you know or do not know, this is more of respectful greeting than an informal.
You may use "Привет" (Hi) or "Приветствую" (Greetings) as an informal greeting to the person you know quite well, but never to the person of ...
An example where "да" answers a question, not related directly to "доброе утро". The first speaker is not sure the usual greeting will be appropriate (imagine a phone call to a friend known to work hard on Friday evening). The answer sounds perfectly natural here:
— Ну как, ты уже выспался (проснулся, отоспался)?
— Да, доброе утро.
"До следующего" feels incomplete and wrong.
"До следующего раза" means not "until next time", but rather "until next occasion/event". As a farewell, it is OK to say to a person/a group of people who you meet only on some rare/specific occasions, according to some schedule, tradition, when the stars align, etc.
For example, you meet some people, say, once, ...
I haven't encountered its use in this sense.
Usually it's said when some business is left undone and is expected to be completed or resumed next time around.
What can be said though is до скорого! (equivalent of the German bis bald) which is a short form of до скорого свидания which in turn is a variant of the conventional до свидания, or the ...
Is that considered normal Russian, as if someone were seriously evaluating whether the morning was good or not?
No, of course not. But "да" in Russian doesn't always mean plain "yes". Here it probably stands for something like "Oh, I almost forgot...". Such usage is quite normal in colloquial speech and is also directly mentioned in dictionaries.
Just to add my two cents to the @shabunc's answer (which is itself good and full).
There can also be доброго дня and (however rarely used, obviously because it's a rare case to say goodbye in the morning) доброго утра. Which would mean: have a good day, have a good morning. The situation with good night when you can't greet anyone saying "добрая ночь" seems ...
From Russian Wikipedia:
Ура́ — восклицательное междометие, употребляющееся в качестве
торжествующего восклицания, выражающего восторг, радость, общее
воодушевление, а также в качестве боевого клича. Кроме русского,
существует и в других языках (нем. hurra, англ. hurrah (или huzzah,
hooah), фр. hurrah и мн. др.) На письме чаще всего ...
"Adding a term of endearment" to a greeting is not much common in Russian except for the close relations. Usually you may choose between several forms of greeting (like 'Добрый день', 'Здравствуйте', 'Привет', 'Здоро́во' etc.) and (last but not least) accent.
Yet there exist several "slanguish" forms: "Здоро́во, пацаны" (Hi, pals); "Привет, братан" (Hi bro);...
There’s one more way — none, that is without any special word. Works for me.
Just make your speech self-attractive and addressive.
А не подскажете…
Though initial А above is also an addressing word, it can be omitted.
Seems not very polite maybe? Universal.
(Вам шашечки или ехать?)
Women in post-Soviet countiries are still rather sensitive about their age. Some middle aged ladies here might feel offended when addressed "zhenschina". Sometimes a little bit flattering form of address ("devushka") can do you good. In such a way, you demonstrate that you believe she is still young and looking good. So, use your common sense.
What I know usually is the following for referring to unknown persons in the street or in a restaurant:
девушка -- young lady, misses (Ms.)
молодой человек -- young man, mister but younger ones (18-25 age)
госпожа -- lady, Mrs.
господин -- older man, Mister (Mr.)
официант - официантка -- waiter - waitress in a restaurant (However if the waiter or waitress ...