20

Russian is an inflecting language, meaning that endings change all the time for every possible reason. Russian has six cases for nouns and adjectives; on top of that, adjectives inflect for gender, number, and animateness to agree with the (explicit or presumed) noun they're describing; on top of that, Russian adjectives have a "short" or predicate form, ...


17

Можно и без "бы". Сослагательное наклонение здесь подчёркивает, то, что это пожелание. В России, среди людей занятие которых связано с риском, не принято говорить "последний" (полёт), так как точно таким же образом скажут о смерти. Стандартный эвфемизм на смерть кого-либо - "отправился в последний путь". В итоге, у людей, связанных с опасной для жизни ...


17

Объединять and its derivatives were not used in Russian before about 1850. Kostomarov did use it time to time in his works, however, he mostly used соединить wherever a modern Russian speaker would have used объединить: Итак, вместо того чтобы идти соединенными силами на половцев, Владимиру приходилось идти войною на своих. Рязанские и муромские князья уже ...


13

Basically, you use it only after "is". Of course in Russian there is no "to be" in the present tense, but none the less you can only use short forms (in modern russian) in this position. You can use the long form in this position too but it's meaning can be different. Моя душа (is) полна тобой Short forms describe things that are true right now, in the ...


13

That's short for "действующий регулятор и будущий регулятор". It's a perfectly valid and quite widely used construct in Russian. E.g. "a blue pencil and a green pencil" (синий карандаш и зелёный карандаш) can be shortened to "синий и зелёный карандаши" which I don't think is possible in English ("a blue and a green pencils"?). It's a kind of ellipsis ...


12

Apart from putting the adjective into the feminine gender to adjust it to the feminine noun остановка, you also have to put the resulting word combination into the Accusative case, because the preposition на needs the following noun phrase to be in the Accusative case, if it is about the direction to the place. That is why the correct way to say it is: 1) ...


11

It should be quite obvious for native speaker, that -аст- and -ист- are augmentative suffixes. Let we take for example the word усы (moustache). Since not everyone has it there is a common adjective усатый, which stands for somebody who simply has moustache. But there is also less common word усастый. It’s suitable for somebody who has very large (or ...


11

Соединённые is historical, used AFAIK only with the US and the UK (Соединённое Королевство, which loses overwhelmingly to Великобритания in frequency of usage. The English term "United Kingdom" dates back to 1707.) As a translation of "united", it would sound "off" nowadays because the word in its current usage properly means "connected", which isn't quite ...


10

-еньк-/-оньк- is an affectionate and/or diminutive suffix, similar to English "-y/-ie": "cute / cutie, sweet / sweetie" etc. It can be used with nouns, adjectives, adverbs and (in baby talk) even verbs: спать / спатеньки. This suffix can sometimes change the style of even the meaning of the words it's used with: for instance, the mentioned маленький is ...


10

It's an adverb, which is what -но usually forms. Ошеломленно describes замолчали. Adjectives have no tense; that said, ошеломлённый is not an adjective but a participle of ошеломить, and as such, is indeed in the past tense (the present participle would be ошеломляемый); but then again, tense is no longer relevant when the participle becomes an adverb. ...


9

Англо-ру́сские словари́ The adjective "англо-русский" is a single word. Therefore it has only one ending "-ий" (pl. "-ие"). Its first part should not be declined. The same holds with "русско-английские словари", for example. But if it's written in two separate words then both are to be declined: "английские и русские словари" (note that it means a totally ...


8

Сильный запах - количественная характеристика, запах, отличающийся силой, амплитудой. Причем, относительно среднего, нормального, ожидаемого уровня того же запаха. Например, "в квартире стоял сильный запах газа". При этом сам запах мог быть едва уловимым, но поскольку запах газа в квартире вообще не ожидается, его можно назвать "сильным", так как запах газа ...


8

Сказуемое - "была примечательная". Это составное именное сказуемое. Именная часть сказуемого в принципе может выражаться разными частями речи - и существительным, и кратким прилагательным, и полным прилагательным (как в данном случае). "Крыса была примечательна - жила неизвестно где..." - это значит, что крыса была примечательна именно тем, что жила ...


8

To answer your second question, in modern Russian красный (красная, красное) means red, as in color. When someone says Красная площадь, what comes to mind is the square at the center of Moscow, and neither color red nor anything else. It’s like if someone would say Sears tower, it’s the landmark building in Chicago that comes to mind, not the retail chain or ...


8

If you had to generalize, do Russians today hear/understand the name as "Red Square" or "Beautiful Square" (regardless of what they know intellectually about its origins)? No. In modern Russian красный does not mean красивый. For example, even if there is an idiom красна девица or красная девица, meaning beautiful girl and used mostly in fairy tails, ...


8

Here an adjective "главный" becomes a noun (the substantivation). The neuter form is chosen because "the main thing" (which it stands for) is a pure abstraction. It could also be, for example, "Главное не победа, а участие" - still neuter gender. But of course the gender matters if you're talking about human beings or animals. For example, "I'm the boss" ...


8

All the numerals ending in 1, exept for those that end in 11 (11, 111, 711, 1011, etc.), need the following noun in the Nominatve case singular. If there is also an attribute adjective, it agrees with the noun in gender, case, and number, that is the adjective will also be in the Nominatve case singular: 21 good girls — двадцать одна хорошая девочка 21 good ...


8

Yes, in Russian, the name of the nationality is usually different from the name of the language. That's because nationalities are nouns, English often has the same difference: nationality is Pole, but the language is Polish, Spaniard and Spanish, Swede and Swedish. The languages are usually named with adjectives, but that's simply because the word "...


7

While other replies do provide some workarounds, none of those can be actually used as a direct equivalent of “I'm thirsty” in a modern spoken Russian language, the most suggested reply uses archaic examples those would not be understood by modern Russians. So, “Я хочу пить” is the most correct translation.


7

You're right, it's a rude word for "cooler", "better". ебовее is a comparative form of the adjective ебовый that, in turn, is derived from the verb ебать.


7

There is a good answer on rus.stackexchange.com: Годовой - получающийся к концу года, в итоге за год; рассчитанный на год (доход, прибыль, убытки, расходы, собрание, оценка, подшивка; запас чего-л., задание и т.п.). I.e. something that is a result of a year, appears at the end of the year or is calculated for one year. Годичный - продолжающийся, ...


7

Yes, there is! See Количественный анализ качественных прилагательных русского языка. But be careful using these adjectives, some of them are colloquial or close to obscene. Here is one of the lists they received. It is an ordered set of 10 unordered sets of adjectives (levels), graded from the most "positive" words to the most "negative". All the words of ...


7

I hardly ever heard the word "провокативный", and it is not listed in most dictionaries, while "провокационный" is a common word. To translate "provocative" you can use "провокационный" only when it refers to something that leads to conflict, fight or polemic. For other meanings word "вызывающий" fits better.


7

Your questions are a bit vague, and also, I don't think валютный курс is a phrase that's likely to be used outside of an academic or professional discussion that's more about the notion of currency exchange rate itself than the rate of a particular currency of a particular point. But to try to answer your questions anyway: Can we form the 1st sentence ...


7

It's a nominalized adjective, similar to those in English "orange is the new black", "eat fresh", "bowl of red" etc. It acts as a subject in this sentence, and, therefore, does not have to agree in gender with the objects. Modern Russian uses sg. neuter to form nominalized adjectives describing abstract or collective concepts: былое ("bygones"), приданое ("...


7

Both nominative plural and genitive plural adjectives can be used with feminine nouns. Nominative plural is preferred. Lisa, you are not the first to notice this variation (and well done spotting it!). Most sources use language such as 'usually', 'more often', 'genitive is preferred', etc. when describing this phenomenon. Here is a quote from Rosenthal: ...


7

Russian adjectives may end in either -ый/-ий or -ой (the latter is always stressed), so it's OK to have also surnames ending in -ой, such as Мостовой. However, it's unclear why Толстой and several other names (Грязной, Дикой etc.) were formed using -ой instead of the proper ending of a corresponding adjective (толстый, грязный, дикий). IMO, the most natural ...


7

These are so-called possessive adjectives which are used extensively (but not exclusively) in science, medicine and religion: булева алгебра базедова болезнь ахиллесова пята прокрустово ложе декартово произведение сизифов труд They are formed by adding the suffix -ов (-ев, -ёв) to the motivating stem (usually denoting a person). Russian surnames (Иванов, ...


7

With the preposition В there're only two options, either Prepositional or Accusative case. Prepositional case when В forms adverbial of location, which answers the question где? - where (at)? - в ЮжнОЙ КореЕ, в ПекинЕ, в КитаЕ, в городЕ, в селЕ etc. Accusative case when В forms adverbial of destination (with verbs of motion or intent) which answers the ...


7

The adjective is хлёсткий ("good at lashing"), the comparative is хлеще (not *хлёще) It comes from хлестать "to lash" and means "trenchant, scathing, vitriolic". Note that all these words, Russian and English alike, are metaphors which literally mean "causing damage or pain" The pattern which is used to form this ...


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