20

Понаехать here is used in the sense 4 in Wiktionary: "to come in big numbers, not being welcome". It's usually used when talking of big cities, like Moscow or St. Petersburg, because that's where people go in big numbers, not being welcome by those who came into these cities in big numbers a year earlier. Normally, it's used in impersonal constructs: Во ...


16

The colloquial пона- prefix, in general, describes something done to excess. Понастроили домов! — Too many houses have been built! Понапокупали прав! — Too many people have bribed their way to a driving license without bothering to learn the road rules! Понапривозили хлама! — Too much junk has been brought in!


13

Льзя, если таковые существуют без отрицательной приставки. Повадно существует как отдельное слово: А нам, мечтателям, и вовсе повадно играть в эту игру. [Юрий Архипов. Назову себя шахматистом… (2004) // «64 — Шахматное обозрение», 2004.05.15] Льзя тоже существует, хотя многие о его существовании не подозревают. Потом переписал очень хорошие стишки: ...


13

The meaning is: Non-doctors can't/couldn't/can never understand that. Also, I'm pretty sure that this is a misprint. They probably intended to use the prefix “не-” and not the particle “не”. I would write that sentence as: Неврачам этого не понять. EDIT: Here is an article about the “не-” prefix, which has “неврачи”, as well as other examples like: (…) ...


8

Complicated question. I read, that linguists even haven different opinion on whether it is correct to consider perfective and imperfective verbs as different forms of the same verb or as different verbs with some similar meaning... I think for beginner learners "aspectual pairs" are much more relevant. They need to understand situations in which they use ...


7

Немецкоязычных швейцарцев, знающих французский, больше, чем франкоязычных (швейцарцев), знающих немецкий. It's possible to find in a modern 'synonyms' dictionary (e.g. Тришин, 2013) versions like: немецкоговорящий (германоговорящий), франкоговорящий (also, noun: франкофон), италоговорящий, португалоговорящий, испаноговорящий, японоговорящий. All of those ...


6

(a) Оставить does not mean "misplace". It can of course mean a related thing, forgetting/abandoning/leaving something behind, but that's not the same as "misplacing". You remember the location; you just forgot to go through with the action of retrieving the object. (b) This is a rare and somewhat obsolete meaning of оставить. Покинуть is the natural word to ...


5

As I have mentioned, заездить, изъездить, наездить, объездить, выездить, поездить, проездить, съездить are the verbs derived from ездить. Some of them have an imperfective pair in a certain meaning. In general, ездить is a multidirectional verb (going in different directions or several times). Ехать is a unidirectional verb. Выездить/объездить ...


5

Let's take a step back and look at two interrelated concepts: the two kinds of motion expressed by Russian verbs of motion and the two aspects of verbs. Unprefixed verbs of motion are all imperfective. That means that they refer to motion which was, is, or will be taking place at the time named. For example: Я иду в магазин. I am on my way to the store. Я ...


5

Prefix "Пред-" emhasizes the idea of something being done before the action was performed itself. Like "условие" and "предусловие". "Условие выполнения чего-то" - it is something you should do in order to achieve something. While "предусловие выполнения чего-то" - it is something you should do even before starting the main action, some preparations, etc. So ...


5

Речь (письменная и устная), как процесс письма или говорения обычно не является самоцелью. Обычно люди хотят донести свои мысли до собеседника. Поэтому правило в словотворчестве по большому счету одно: нужно говорить и писать так, чтобы понял собеседник. Письменная и устная речь по-разному справляются с отклонениями от стандарта. Люди обладающие хорошим ...


4

The Russian word "преднамеренно" means the action was planned beforehand and prepared for, while "намеренно" may mean either the action was improvised or decided on site as well as planned beforehand. So "преднамеренно" is a particular case of "намеренно" when the intention arose beforehand rather than on-site.


4

Both are possible and are fine. Also, "добрался" is possible, as mentioned in Artemix's and Herokiller's answers. If you ask me how I would say it as a native speaker - I would say "добрался". More specifically, I would say: "Я добрался туда на самолёте". "Туда" (there, to that place) is not mandatory, but it sounds better that way. Maybe I can say ...


4

With motional verbs, prefix по means beginning of motion. Inversal case would have the prefix при, when ending the motion (arriving to some place).


4

They have different meanings взлетать/взлететь - to take off - vector of motion is vertical улетать/улететь - to fly away - vector of motion is horizontal it's possible to взлететь without улетaть Both are applicable to planes and birds, to anything able to fly.


4

Объездить is a bit stronger word, often belonging to the expression "объездить (изъездить, исколесить) вдоль и поперёк". Some dictionaries (like Ushakov's one) mark it as 'colloquial' - anyway, объездить is less formal than the neutral объехать and usually means to visit those places not just once, to travel intensively, while объехать typically means 'to ...


4

To extend the other answers: One can use понаехать in the singular when the subject denotes a group of people (собирательные существительные): Деревенский люд понаехал. Татарва понаехала. Быдло понаехало.


4

нехай is not Russian, but Ukrainian, although it may be in use regionally in Southern Russia, Ставрополье and Кубань, which are historically and geographically connected with Ukraine. In нечто не could be not a prefix of negation but one of indeterminateness like in other similar pronouns некто, некогда (in the sense of once upon a time), несколько In one ...


3

I've sometimes explained it like this: ездить, like ходить, водить, and others, is a multidirectional verb. Most multidirectional verbs can take a directional prefix (в-, вы-, при-, у-, etc.) to form an imperfective that has a nuance of direction: входить 'to enter,' приводить 'to bring,' уносить 'to carry/take away,' etc. Ездить is unusual in that it'...


3

The verbs "объехать" and "объездить" are not absolute synonyms, and they are not completely interchangeable (imho). There is a nuance (at least for me). "Объехать" might mean "to visit different places in one travel": Филеас Фогг объехал весь мир за 80 дней. "Объездить" means "to visit different places in separate travels, with various directions": Я ...


3

Well, first of all, there is a bunch of dual-aspect verbs, i.e. perfective and imperfective at the same time. See, for example, wiktionary:Двувидовые глаголы. They are prefixless, though. Next, there are some perfective verbs which do not add anything to the meaning of its imperfective pair, except the completeness of the action. The most obvious example, ...


3

Thе words in each of the two groups are considered to have the same root. However, for historical reasons, a single root may have multiple forms. According to Russian Derivational Dictionary (volume 1, pages 94-96), there are 6 different forms of root воз: занаваживать везти подвёзший унавоженный возить обоз The same dictionary shows 5 ...


3

In your example, Она пошла на работу. It means (1) the action was begun. It can mean 'She just left for work' or 'She started a new job / resumed her job' [after a break]. You can easily imagine a situation where Она пошла на работу, но попала в пробку и вернулась домой. 'She left for work, but got stuck in traffic and came back home.'


3

"Преднамеренное" is used mostly in criminal and law enforcement context or, wider, is is used to describe actions the speaker assumes to be mischievous a priory. Examples: "преднамеренное убийство", "преднамеренное нанесение тяжкого вреда здоровью". Therefore, "преднамеренное" is definitely more official. Yet, even in a legal terminology "намеренное" and "...


3

Actually both variants are grammatically correct, but the meaning is slightly different. Я прилетел на самолете simply means that you arrived. By saying "прилетел" you don't want to focus on the transport you have used. By saying Я добрался на самолете you are focusing on the fact that you have managed to reach your destination by using plane. You want to ...


3

Grammatically, they are both alright, but actually, saying "by plane" already means that you "flew", you can say "Прошлой зимой я летал/слетал в Москву"; in case you want to use 2 sentences you'd better say "Прошлой зимой я побывал('ve been) в Москве. Я добрался(got, arrived) на самолете".


3

In the meaning of "vary, become different" the verbs are synonymous, with both used in academic style with no difference in connotation — i.e. the choice of a verb in a particular sentence is up to the author (for example, to avoid using only "изменяться" several times in a row).


3

You can think that "преднамеренно" means "planned". Because it refers to the fact that the intention existed long before the action.


3

In principle it can be added on top of any prefixed verb. But in practice it seems some specific prefixes are more likely to be augmented with it. On the one hand it appears to be a feature of vernacular and language of commoners but on the other it's not to my observation very current in speech of urban residents. I guess it's a phenomenon which gradually ...


3

The first sentence doesn't sound Russian. The verb понаехать is about people (not a single person) who've come (приехали) to some place (e. g. to dwell there) in big numbers (наехали) while doing that gradually (понаехали - постепенно наехали в большом количестве). That sentence would only make sense with the single-prefixed verb наеду (на него) which ...


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