The Russian orthography is based on morphological-historical principles, which means it tries to write down morphemes the same way all the time and keep the historical spellings of the morphemes (the latter is the main feature of the English spelling, too).
This Г read as B is an example of historical spelling. It is found only in the genitive case of ...
As you can notice nobody calls in Russian Francesco d'Assisi Франческо д'Ассизи - and I'm not saying this in ironical way. For instance, Leonardo da Vinci is indeed called Леонардо да Винчи. The thing is that traditions of transliterating names are not straightforward - some names are transliterated more or less at they "are", some names - do not.
As you can see from your own question, Russians indeed do spell жирный as жырный sometimes. It’s just that people sometimes tend to ignore strict orthography rules for convenience or fun — especially in “light-weight” e-message communication. In this particular case it’s more about fun. This intentionally illiterate spelling is a part of so-called “...
This is the picture every Russian learns in 1st grade (7 years old)
Each consonant from the top row is pronunced unvoiced (substituted by letter from bottom row), if it's located at the end of closed syllable* (such as the consonant end of the word). We never say a voiced consonant in the word ending, and for children it's hard to write a word "год", ...
To place emphasis on this word
These patterns are called "Sensational spelling" and "Cacography".
It is not a unique Russian language trait:
Cacography is deliberate comic misspelling, a type of humour
Sensational spelling is the deliberate spelling of a word in an incorrect or non-standard way for special effect
People change spelling ...
Óтпуска is the Genitive case singular of óтпуск:
У меня давно не было óтпуска. – I haven't got a vacation for a long time.
Отпускá is the Nominative and Accusative case plural of óтпуск:
Друзья рассказали мне, как они провели свои отпускá. – My friends told me how they had spent their vacations.
As for me, I've never encountered the word "hushers" before, but since you are writing about ч, ш, щ, ж, I guess you mean what is called шипящие звуки in Russian. Шипящие звуки can be translated as "hissing sounds" into English, but there is a conceptual difference between the ideas behind the English hissing and Russian шипящий: in English snakes hissssssss,...
The two-degree vowel reduction model ignores word boundaries for prepositions. In до ско́рого, the preposition is treated as a pre-emphatic syllable, and so becomes [dɐ]; in до свида́ния, it's a plain unstressed syllable, hence [də].
It can carry stress, ['do], when semantically emphasised: факты надо было проверять до публикации "[you] should've fact-...
This is a phenomenon called vowel reduction.
A good starting point would be the Wikipedia article on Russian phonology: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_phonology#Vowel_mergers
In a nutshell, most Russian dialects distinguish о and а and pronounce them more or less the way it says on the tin when they are stressed, and merge them (pronounce a neutral ...
A Comprehensive Russian Grammar by T. Wade gives a rule for the pronunciation of -чн-
The pronunciation of -чн-
(1) -чн- is pronounced [ʃn] in certain words (конéчно [kʌˈnɛʃnə] ‘of
course’, нарóчно ‘on purpose’, очéчник ‘spectacle case’, прáчечная
‘laundry’, скýчно ‘boring’, яичница ‘fried eggs’), as well as in the
patronymics Ильинична ‘...
The letter ф is found almost exclusively in loanwords. The only exceptions are sparse native Russian words like дрофа, филин and onomatopoeic words like фу, фыркать etc.
The sound [f], though, can be found in many native Russian words as a devoiced allophone of /в/ in words like вторник, вперёд etc.
It got there after the fall of the reduced, when consonant ...
This is probably the most famous phenomenon of Standard Russian, it's called "аканье" (akanye, 'ah-ing') and it's a case of vowel reduction. Tons of materials are avaliable on the issue, Wikipedia has lots, too.
In short, the letter 'o' in an unstressed syllable is pronounced as 'a' with phonetic realizations as [ɐ] in the syllable immediately preceding ...
Cyrillic alphabet was developed in what is modern Bulgaria based on Greek alphabet, so:
В was modeled after Greek Β (beta). This was originally pronounced [b] in ancient Greek but in modern (and medieval) Greek it is weakened to [v]
Н, which originally looked N, was modeled after Greek Ν (nu)
И, which originally looked Н, was modeled after Greek Η (eta). In ...
Imparisyllabic Latin words (meaning words having an extra syllable in genitive compared to nominative) are usually cited in their genitive form, as it's usually a more accurate representation of the word's etymology.
Church Slavonic authors chose to use Latin genitive stems for all Church Slavonic forms, including the nominative.
That's why we have Venus (...
People who tend to use 'Latin' pronunciation in abbreviations (and it is a very common practice) would say "ye te tse".
Just like they say "ye dva ye chetyre" (E2-E4) to describe one of the favorite first moves in the Chess. Not ""e dva e chetyre".
The only words in Russian ending by олнц are derivatives from "солнце". In all the rest of the words with олн + vowel л is alway pronounced. I'm aware only of two words with олн + consonant, that are:
чолнт - л is pronounced in this word.
Солнзас (or Солнзап) - it's a river and as far as I know л is pronounced there.
So yes, that's an exception. But, ...
(In addition to shabunc's answer.)
Aside of just fun, жырный is used mostly when they want to stress that it's not just "some bold X" but an extremely huge and/or explicit X.
Жырный минус in your example is not just "whatever bold minus" but
an enormously stressed/big one, i.e. it's the worst possible
assessment for "the rest" of the restaurant.
The reason is purely historical.
Before the orthography reform of 1918, the two words mentioned by @КуЪ were written as тушъ and тушь, accordingly.
Those two writings are relics of the law of open syllables which, among other things, forbade the words to end with consonants in early Slavic languages.
The letters ъ and ь denoted reduced vowels present in ...
Letter ё is optional, it is usually replaced by е. We have a number of questions about this letter on this site, for example: Using written е instead of ë,
Is 'ё' a distinct letter, or is it just 'е' with a diaeresis?, What are all the times where "е" changes to "ё"?. In short, letter ё is always used only in ...
Слово Париж пришло в современный русский через польский, в котором оно звучит (ну, практически) так же - Paryż. Гипотеза @user31264 не выдерживает критики и проходит по разряду любительской этимологии. И например, у чехов слово Парид - Paříž - ř уж никак не объяснить "потому что так франки на самом деле произносили".
Есть полуапокрифическая гипотеза, что ...
"Oh-vo-shet" is certainly curious, but I think I can see how it happened, and, in fact, you've stumbled upon a curious little feature of Russian pronunciation that even most native speakers aren't conscious of.
The "v" is explained easily, it's what the hard [ɫ] sounded like to you, being as it is quite different from the [l] in English.
But what to make ...
I love questions like these, they uncover small quirks that even most native speakers aren't aware of.
The stress is on the second syllable, and sounds like it. There's more at play at Forvo and Wiktionary, though; it's subtle, modern, and I don't think they teach that. There's often a sort of quasi-stress — qualitatively different from regular Russian ...
Well, it's easy to check. So, you are saying that ы sound like э so why not just substitute and repeat two-three times, loud and clear and slowly: газетэ and журналэ. Does it sound right to you - well, it's clearly not.
What you do actually hear is that ы is reduced when it's not under stress (like in столы) - you hear a very short vowel which is still ...
Yes, the rule exists and dictates that any vowel except for [у] that follows a soft consonant in an unstressed position is reduced to something between [э] and [и]:
Source: М.В. Пано́в. Ру́сская фоне́тика
In particular, this makes the words чистота́ (cleanliness) and ...
It is hard, like in Gary. Hear for example the pronounce of га (https://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/га#Произношение). It is the voiced counterpart of к.
In Russian there is no sound similar to G in Geniune. Such G is transliterated as ДЖ.
Sometimes, г is pronounced as the voiced counterpart of х. This is most common in Ukraine, and among people from Ukraine. ...
When a native speaker speaks they never think of actual phonemes. Nobody is thinking like: "hey, I'm pronouncing "ɯ" in 10% of cases when it's actually spelled as "o". To answer your question - it's not prevalent.
This statement from wiki is valid:
В русском литературном языке [ʑ:] (обычно обозначается [ж❜:] или
[ж̅’]) может встречаться внутри корня ...
This very initialism is invariable.
However, there are some acronyms like ЗАГС, БОМЖ, ТЭН etc. which do decline as any other noun would, and in fact many Russian speakers are unaware those are initialisms.
This is more common for initialisms which would have been masculine if they were nouns, however, ЧК used to decline as well in early XX century (забрали ...
The liturgical language of Russian Orthodox Church is not Russian but Church Slavonic. Church Slavonic is a codified version of Old Church Slavonic, which technically is not even a direct ancestor of Russian but noticeably influenced Russian.
In Church Slavonic there's no such thing like "ё". Technically «да святится имя Твое» is a valid Russian phrase ...
What is the right way to stress the word часа?
The "right" one is ча́са, however, the most frequently used combinations, such as, two hours, three hours, four hours and a quarter of an hour all require the stress shift: два / три / четыре / четверть часа́. So this word is a bit tricky.