10

The reason why a special letter was introduced for a foreign sound is quite simple, the classical Cyrillic alphabet included all the letters of the Greek alphabet, including Ѳ and Ф. In the modern Russian, [f] is not used almost exclusively in loan words, as you put it, it is used in numerous original Russian words and in different suffixes, only it is ...


7

I think it's a word which was specifically coined to be difficult to pronounce. There are many quasi-linguistic jokes about either complexity or uniqueness of the Russian language which feature silly or absurd or overcomplicated words or phrases, and "бесперспективняк" probably originates from a joke like that. Some of my friends use it, and they stumble ...


6

After a couple of days of thinking over it all I have finally decided to put down the whole story of кы, гы, хы the way I understand it. My story will begin with what the answer by Quassnoi begins, with some additions, but then it will continue, from the point when Quassnoi stopped. It will be long, it will require close reading, and it will be very ...


5

As for me, it's difficult to pronounce that phrase fast, but maybe it's because I've never even thought of saying such a silly word, and I can hardly imagine someone who'd use it. On the other hand, as a tongue-twister drill, it's pretty good. After some exercise and training, it's quite possible to learn to pronounce it quite fast. Training distinctive ...


5

The difference between и and ы after consonants in Russian is not phonematic, and neither is the difference between palatalized and non-palatalized к, г, х. You can probably find some degenerate minimal pairs for the latter, like тот кот / то ткёт, or aforementioned киш / кыш for that matter, but that's about it. Old Russian did have кы, гы, хы and didn't ...


5

A more correct question would be, why other Indo-European languages have /f/. This is because the Proto-Indo-European language had no such sound. For example, in English word-initial /f/ evolved from PIE /p/, in Greek the evolution was from PIE /bh/ via /ph/.


4

You can hear my pronunciation here (I'm a native speaker): https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B9c5ff-vyZgcTi00c2VMUC00VWc/view


3

You pronounce a schwa between г and н: ['agənt͡sɨf]. However, if the poetic rhythm calls for a two-syllable word, like here: С тобой люблю я, в мыслях сладких, Собрать, устроить, просветить Народы; тигров, к крови падких, В смиренных агнцев превратить. , the г itself becomes lenient (vowel-like) and articulates as a nasalized uvular stop: ['aɢ&#...


3

You will also hardly find гы, хы syllables. The common quality of these phonemes is that к, г, х are заднеязычные согласные and they followed the same patterns of phonological changes as they (the changes) happened in Old Russian language. Apparently, about a thousand years ago the situation was quite different: The full PDF is here Unfortunately, some ...


3

If they use this word in a conversation then I assume they used it many times and won't have trouble with it. It's slang so not all native speakers will use it. I would use something more precise depending on context to say that I got into situation/profession/field with no good outcome no matter what I do here. P.S.: To master this word I would divide it ...


3

According to this forum thread (Russian), суда is a suppletive plural much like люди, albeit from the same root. The plural forms come from суд, in its Old Russian meaning of "vessel" (which is also the literal translation of судно, albeit in the narrow nautical sense). I must say I'm not quite satisfied with how the question of the nom. pl. суда is waved ...


2

Most but not all: й, ч and щ are always soft ж, ш and ц are always hard.


2

и and ы don't have a minimal pair that doesn't also involve a soft/hard contrast of the preceding consonant; therefore scholars consider them allophones of the same phoneme. That said, they're (for the most part) historically unrelated; ы tends to be a reflex of early Proto-Slavic (or Proto-Balto-Slavic, my chronology is shaky here) ū, whereas и was either ...


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