16

Yes, it is quite common in conversational speech: Он знает английский. = He knows English. Она предпочитает русский. = She prefers Russian. Note that language names or nationalities are not capitalised in Russian. Neither are months or days or the week.


11

It should be quite obvious for native speaker, that -аст- and -ист- are augmentative suffixes. Let we take for example the word усы (moustache). Since not everyone has it there is a common adjective усатый, which stands for somebody who simply has moustache. But there is also less common word усастый. It’s suitable for somebody who has very large (or ...


9

I will agree with Aksakal, that many words ending in -ция have probably been imported from Latin or French. Although модерация might be imported from English, since it is a relatively new word used mostly in the internet and IT. Answering your question. No, not all words are translated by this rule. Many words do have such a counterpart, and the ones you ...


8

It's not English, it's also French and other languages which have words with Latin suffix -tio. It became -sion -tion in these languages. Russian probably borrowed directly from Latin, hence ция without "n" at the end.


7

Немецкоязычных швейцарцев, знающих французский, больше, чем франкоязычных (швейцарцев), знающих немецкий. It's possible to find in a modern 'synonyms' dictionary (e.g. Тришин, 2013) versions like: немецкоговорящий (германоговорящий), франкоговорящий (also, noun: франкофон), италоговорящий, португалоговорящий, испаноговорящий, японоговорящий. All of those ...


6

The question is great and rather complicated. First of all, there are different ways to form a comparative only from qualitative adjectives. A compound form with более in front of the adjective and the so-called synthetic or simple forms with the following endings: -ее/ей, -е and -ше. I will not consider the analytical form with более, but it certainly ...


6

Вернуть is to return as in give something back. Вернуться is to return as in come back. -ся (which becomes -сь after a vowel, except in adjectival participles) is simply the reflexive particle. Вернуться is literally "to return oneself". -ться is, grammatically, just the sum of its parts (infinitive -ть + reflexive -ся); phonetically, though, it's notable ...


6

When talking about groups of people that share some idea it's not easy to find a "true" russian suffix that suites the task. The only pre-cristian beleiver I can recall is волхв, ведун. Other kinds were called so by Russian cristians: язычник, идолопоклонник. There are also some cristian sects like иконоборец, старовер. (You may also want to see a list of ...


5

I want to add to the answer by Dmitry Alexandrov some information about the origins of the suffixes. The suffix -аст-, -ист- comes from Proto-Indo-European superlative suffix -isto- while -т- comes from PIE adjectival suffix -to-. So the both retain their meanings to an extent, although the former is usually used as augmentative rather than superlative in ...


5

ru.wikipedia agrees w.r.t. -арь, referencing Antoine Meillet Le slave commun: *-arjь (суффикс профессии, отсюда рус. -арь) < прагерм. *-arjoz < лат. -arius "Аль" is not a single suffix. There's '-л-' in words like пада-л-ь, бы-л-ь, порос-л-ь (it's a suffix signifying a phenomenon; some words with -аль are here) then there's '-л-' in words like ...


5

I don't think anyone has ever analysed correspondence or did a statistical analysis of translateability between the respective English adjectives and Russian present passive participles, but let's conduct an exercise the list source likeable - привлекательный, располагающий к себе peaceable - миролюбивый debatable - спорный pleasurable - приятный, ...


5

It's попутчица in single and попутчицы in plural. More general, -чик has correspondence -чица. Be warned however, that it's not always an equally used feminine form and there's ongoing discussion to what extent we should use feminitives (see also this question) in Russian.


5

Потому что у этих суффиксов разные значения: -ист- — прилагательные со значением: похожий на что-то (серебристый, бархатистый); обладающий чем-то в большом количестве (голосистый, ветвистый); имеющий склонность к какому-нибудь действию (задиристый, отрывистый, порывистый) Шипастый — много шипов (растут по всей площади), лучистый — много лучей (по аналогии)...


5

Nope this has nothing to do with Internet slang, all the words you’ve listed existed at least since eighties. In fact, you are asking very interesting question - indeed the etymology -он as postfix should be investigated - I'm not aware of a any research of this kind (but this means nothing - I'm a mere amateur). For instance, "локон" - a "regular" word ...


4

As Wiktionary tells us, the word "компания" splits into root -компани- and inflection -я: Корень: -компани-; окончание: -я In all cases, only inflection changes (same source): падеж ед. ч. мн. ч. Им. компáния компáнии Р. компáнии компáний Д. компáнии компáниям В. компáнию компáнии Тв. компáнией компáниями компáниею Пр. компáнии ...


4

It means thick (headed). Grammatically it is the word тупая with the suffix -еньк(ая) (-ая is ending) -еньк (-оньк) is a suffix of adjectives, adverbs and nouns which imparts them diminutive connotation to either downtone their rudeness (as in тупенькая vs тупая), make them sound gentle or, in case of adverbs, to reduce their intensity and absoluteness ...


4

Despite that Vasmer in fact ignores the words with “-арь” suffix, the comparison of terms having that suffix drops hints about it‘s latin roots: -ārius m (f. -āria, n. -ārium) See: псарь, свинарь, виноградарь, ключарь, чеботарь, ложкарь, штукарь, плугарь, пушкарь, косарь, кобзарь, библиотекарь, аптекарь, почтарь, корчмарь, волгарь (and it‘s derivative «...


4

In mathematics, neither дыра nor дырка are commonly used to denote an point/set that is excluded from another set. However, the actual terminology is somewhat similar: If some set has the point A removed from it (usually with its neighbourhood included in the set), it is said: Точка A выколота. Similarly, a set that includes all points close to A but not A ...


4

Semantically I do not see any difference. The suffix -ин is used to express posessiveness. So: кошкин дом = дом кошки мамин дом = дом мамы Grammatically you can't add more attributes to cat or mother because they've become an attribute themselves. дом моей мамы = ? дом серой кошки = ? Also you can't form possessive adjectives that way freely. There are ...


4

Игрок. Видеоигрок; Игрок в компьютерные игры, игрок в видеоигры. . "would it be видеоиграник or видеоигранец?" - no, but it sounds funny :> "видеоиграник" - as if video games had turned him into something like cubic-polyhedron or some other strange geometric shape ... :> Заигрался... до многогранника :> ... "видеоигранец&...


3

These words can also be translated as модерирование администрирование трансформирование провоцирование In this case they would mean the process connected with this english noun.


3

Consider "I return" (or "I'll be back") = "Я вернусь" vs "Return it to sender" = "Вернуть отправителю". "-ся" is the reflexive particle much like one in German/Italian/Spanish etc. You may treat "вернуться" as "return oneself" although hardly anyone says so in English.


3

There are indeed multitudinous agent noun suffixes (суффиксы имён деятеля) in Russian, like -ец, -ик, -тель, -арь, -ун and many others. They have some kind of rhyme and reason behind them, but it is so vague and there are so many ad-hoc exceptions, that you're better off just learning them by heart. Even native Russian speakers get confused by distinctions ...


2

As a general rule, it seems, adjectives with -т- mean that a specific feature is [noticeably] present, and -ст- means that a feature is prominent. Obviously, носатый is an exception. Волосатый is used both ways: волосатая грудь (a breast that has [noticeable] hairs while as opposed to a breast without [noticeable] hairs) vs волосатый юноша (a young man ...


2

This is analogous to the two ways of expressing possession in English: mother's house vs. the house of the mother мамин дом vs. дом мамы


2

"Middle, normal form" is called "начальная форма".


2

ЕЦ is a diminutive suffix, used mostly in the Ukranian and Belorussian languages. In Russian, it was transformed in a suffix that forms names of nationalities. So, "каменец" just means "a small stone".


2

In addition to Баян Купи-ка's answer, some people use the English suffix -able directly with Russian verbs thus producing: чита́бельный 'easy to read / worth reading' игра́бельный 'easy to play / worth playing' смотри́бельный 'easy to watch', etc It's a relatively new trend and it's far from being standard Russian. It's more of a slang. It can sound cool ...


2

Compare: "Я должен вернуть долг. Скоро заканчивается его срок." "Я хочу вернуть книгу." "Она хотела вернуть любовь." and: "Я должен вернуться домой. Забыл ключи от гаража." "Мы можем вернуться к первому вопросу из списка." "Они собрались вернуться на корабль."


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