53

There's nothing special about Russian. In many European languages there's one word that can be used to state that something is highly esteemed and/or expensive. French - cher means both expensive (une voiture chère: an expensive car) and dear ("Mon cher ami": "My dear friend"). I'm citing French first, because I always speculated that the usage of дорогой ...


44

The source of that meaning comes from a rather old slang verb динáмить meaning водить за нос; продолжительное время обманывать, вводить в заблуждение, не делать по отношению к кому-либо обещанного или ожидаемого; прогуливать, пропускать что-либо (уроки, занятия, встречи и т. д.); флиртовать, не вступая в интимную связь (обычно о женском поле). The ...


43

There is no reason to worry that this question would be closed - it is indeed a very good question. Word Негр is not considered racist in Russia or Russian language. Do note that the scientific name for the race is Negroid - hence the word to describe an individual representative of that race. This word is different in pronunciation from the N-word in ...


31

Looking at the meanings of cognates of the Proto-Slavic čь̑rstvъ, one can notice the common meaning 'hard', 'strong', 'sharp'. I guess the Czechs and the Slovaks view fresh bread as 'hard on the outside', i.e. having a crispy crust, while Russian, Polish and others see it as 'hard on the inside', i.e. stale. It's just my guess. There are other examples of ...


30

Neither. This word derives from the verb "прятаться", which translates as "to hide (oneself)".


23

Just homonyms.There's an older word, подкол 'joke' together with the verbs подколоть (perf.), подкалывать (imp.) 'to play a joke [on smb]', but here 'the joke' is aimed at a person to make laugh of them. Прикол is almost the same, only another prefix is kind of showing that the joke is neutral, that is not aimed at/against somebody. That is a mere ...


22

In Russian "чёрные" ("blacks") is a racist slur for Caucasians. It is not associated with people of African descent at all. "Чёрные люди" ("black people") sounds not connected to race at all, it looks as if you were speaking about their soul being "black" and evil and the persons were immoral, so it is derogatory but not racist. In an archaic meaning it ...


21

Действительно, для программирования компьютеров (или как их тогда называли ЭВМ) использовались методы основанные на идее пробивания отверстий (перфокарты, перфоленты) или выжигания лишних связей. И в принципе здесь была возможна "коррекция" (перепрошивка) - иногда можно было изменить записанную таким образом информацию пробив дополнительные ...


21

You are probably looking for “вепрь”. While understandable to a modern Russian speaker, it still has an air of “fairytale-ness”. I personally would just use “кабан”. I don't know how and why “кабан” got more popular in common speech, and I'm not sure, if there even is a reason.


20

волшебник is a general term having some positive connotations, although there can be злой волшебник. It is often used in fairy tales. Волшебство is a general term for magic, especially prolonged one or a set of miracles. колдун has negative associations. It is synonym to злой волшебник. Somebody who practices black magic, which can render you disabled or ...


20

-бан is an argotic suffix that is used to create word that is not used in normal/official language as one of purposes of argot itself. See тройбан, щелбан, дружбан.


20

No. The set phrase is дворец культуры, and «Энергетик» should properly be in quotes as it's the name of that particular Palace of Culture. An энергетик is a person, a power engineer. Naming things after members of a prevalent local profession was common in the USSR. "Kulturelle Energetik" would be культурная энергетика.


19

It's a euphemism of ёбаный ("fucking", literally "fucked"), same as in English "frigging" instead of "fucking". The root itself is a descendant of a PIE root meaning "to dig, to scratch". This word is akin to гроб ("coffin"), English "grub", "grave" etc.


19

дорогой/ая is not only expensive, it's also dear, the word has at least two meanings Not only women are called дорогая in the sense of dear, men are addressed as дорогой as well, in formal correspondence or in formal settings, especially at solemn events. Colloquially these words either appear in dubbed foreign movies as a translation for dear, its ...


19

Came into European languages from Greek via Erasmus' Latin translation: Ὁ δύο πτῶκας διώκων οὐδέτερον καταλαμβάνει Duos insequens lepores, neutrum capit (English: By chasing two rabbits, he catches neither; from Adagia 3.3.36). from Wikipedia: Adagia (singular adagium) is the title of an annotated collection of Greek and Latin proverbs, compiled during the ...


19

This was not a new word. The original meaning of the word спутник is traveling companion. It has been used in this sense since the dawn of the modern Russian language. Similarly, the use of the word in the sense of a satellite of a planet has a long history. For artificial satellites it came into use as soon as the concept itself came about, in the ...


18

Очень интересный вопрос, давайте прикинем. I. Сначала рассмотрим переход индоевропейских фонем в праславянские в варианте *r̥ḱt-os. Поскольку славянские языки – это языки "satem", то *ḱ > *s. Окончание *ŏs > *ŭs *r̥ > *ăr или *ŏr Получаем раннепраславянское *ărstŭs / *ŏrstŭs. Далее начал действовать закон открытых слогов и возрастающей звучности слога, ...


18

Версия об ивритском происхождении — типичная фольклорная этимология, причем даже сильнее обыкновенного притянутая за уши. Возможно, это шутка, кем-то принятая всерьез. При этом близкое по смыслу слово ивритского происхождения в криминальном арго присутствует — это слово хуна. С польским очевидно присутствует ровно обратная ситуация: это в современном ...


17

Because historically what we call past in modern Russian is perfect, and what we believe to be past forms of the verbs are in fact participles (adjectives formed from verbs). Compare: Он пел / она пела / оно пело (he / she / it has sung) Он бел / она бела / оно бело (he / she / it is white) In old Russian there was a number of other past tenses. The most ...


16

Not redundant, does affect. The soft mark is the reason чьи is pronounced [tɕji] and not [tɕi]. Basically, ь between a consonant and a vowel is pronounced [j] — an actual separate iotic consonant, as opposed to just the preceding one getting palatalised: пьяный ['pʲja-] vs. пятна ['pʲa-]. The principle works with the ь-unaffected sibilants too. Now the ...


15

In Old Church Slavonic numerals didn't constitute a distinct part of speech, numbers 1-4 were numerical adjectives, numbers bigger than 5 were numerical nouns, that is why numbers 1-4 agreed in gender and number with the following noun, the noun being in singular after 1, in dual after 2, and in plural after 3 and 4: єдинъ чловѣкъ (m.), єдина жєна (f.),...


15

The word "гипподром" is still used as a historical term for ancient stadiums for horse racing. The reason for dropping "г" was French influence where "h" is not pronounced (and the word hippodrome is not an exception). French was heavily used by Russian aristocracy and actually a lot of words were borrowed in French spelling. Even English names, like Ньютон ...


15

I decided to turn my comment into an answer and add some references, etc. It is a very common phenomenon in related (but, nonetheless, different !) languages. A common language splits into branches and a word starts evolving in different directions. Over the centuries the meanings of the word in those 'branches' (which gradually develop into fully-fledged ...


14

"Заседание" и "председатель" — это кальки с "sessio" и "praesidens". Что касается корня, это -сид- "неизвестно откуда взявшийся", исходная форма корня как раз -сед- (точнее, -сѣд-). Про "неизвестно откуда" читаем у Фасмера: Вост.-слав. *сидѣти из *sěděti, где i получено в результате ассимиляции во 2 л. ед. sědiši, 3 л. ед. sěditь и т. д. Поэтому логично,...


14

Here is a scan of the October 5, 1957 announcement from Pravda: The first sentence reads: В течение ряда лет в Советском Союзе ведутся научно-исседовательские и опытно-конструкторские работы по созданию искусственных спутников Земли. This can be translated: For many years now scientific research and the construction of prototypes has been going on in the ...


13

Кто ("who") and "что"("what") have different initial consonants due to the so-called Slavic first palatalization which happened rather early, in the Proto=Slavic times. Кто < Pr-Sl. *kъ-to Что < Pr-Sl. *čь-to During this palatalisation *k changed *k > *kʲ > *č before front vowels. *ь being a front vowel, *čь is the result of *ki undergoing ...


13

As Vasmer shows it, both платье, платок, and also плата and платить derive from the word плат which meant "a piece of textile, cloth" and which is connected with the words in different IE languages that mean "wide", that was perhaps the original meaning of this root. The English flat also derives from the same root, but with its meaning a ...


13

Болельщик origins from the construct болеть (душой) за . Examples: “Коли-де сам государь-батюшка с топором в своих царских руках, валит лес, по пояс в воде, долбней вбивает сваи, как же нам, рабам его, не терпеть? Сам-то он болеет за нас душой, да, видно, дело-то нужное. Не трудил бы, не мучил бы себя, коли б не видал нашей пользы” (1832) Исчез лучший и ...


13

If you deal with languages that split quite recently, about 1000 years ago or even later as it was for the Slavic languages, you will definitely encounter the false friends, a phenomenon every translator has got to be highly aware of. I live in Ukraine and six highly similar languages surround me, Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Belarusian, Slovak, and Czech. ...


13

The word спутник meaning "a satellite of a celestial body" was coined, as were many other Russian scientific terms, by Mikhail Lomonosov. He first used it in his 1744's translation of Beschreibung des im Anfang des Jahrs 1744 erschienenen Cometen nebst einigen darüber angestellten Betrachtungen (Описание в начале 1744 года явившейся кометы купно с ...


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