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11

Well, that's quite an interesting question. But to say how the tenses correspond to each other we must first know what they really mean in both languages. And this is where we may fail as everyone knows well at most only one language. But let's try anyway. English Continuous tense means: "I'd like to point out that some action is still in progress"....


9

One very important use of the imperfective aspect is expressing the fact that took or did not take place, while the time of its occurence is irrelevant (even if technically it did happen at some specific point in time). Typically called "общефактическое значение" in Russian. When answering questions or introducing statements, this use of imperfective ...


8

The fact is that должен in no way influences the choice of aspect. Both "Мы должны выигрывать" and "Мы должны выиграть". The former implies a regular pattern - we must always win; the latter - we must win once. не has no influence here either see #1 To quote a popular site for Russian learners, "The aspects are: Imperfective - Incomplete, ongoing, ...


8

Complicated question. I read, that linguists even haven different opinion on whether it is correct to consider perfective and imperfective verbs as different forms of the same verb or as different verbs with some similar meaning... I think for beginner learners "aspectual pairs" are much more relevant. They need to understand situations in which they use ...


5

Usage can depend on situation. Imperfective version is more natural if it's about continuous inaction or refusal (which you mentioned) to behave as somebody expects or has just asked for. Я не буду брать карандаши из ящика. [Ни сейчас, ни потом - предпочитаю свои]. -- Скажи ей об этом. -- (Нет,) я не буду [= не стану] говорить ей об этом. ...


5

Let us consider only one single cell: For the unique top-left cell of the table, the cell are further subdivided into header and data cells in Russian. +-------+ | I ate | |   | +-------+ | | ...


5

There aren't many Russian verbs without a perfective counterpart. This site discourages asking and answering posts about making word lists, so I will just name some of those verbs and try to define what they have in common. As you know, perfective verbs name actions that are seen as either having a beginning, |→, e.g. пойти ('to start going, to depart, to ...


5

Сказать means to make one or more statements which have the effect of informing the listener on some clearly identified subject. For example: Скажите что я позвонил. Хорошо, скажу. In contrast поговорить means to have a talk with someone. It conveys the idea of uttering appropriate words in order to revolve a situation or to make one's position clear. For ...


5

When the verb is transitive you have to use a perfective form in positive sentences, like in Мне нужно это найти. As suggested by Баян Купи-ка in the comments imperfective form is also valid here when you talk about some stretched in time duty: Мне нужно находить решения, приемлемые для всех - I [always] have to look for solutions, suitable for everyone. ...


4

Испугать and напугать are synonyms. They are mostly interchangeable. The difference if exists is very subtle. Roughly, напугать = to make shocked испугать = to make concerned One difference is when using the words with reflexives. It is possible to испугаться за (for) something but not напугаться за (for) something: Когда сына призвали в армию, я ...


4

Many grammar books state that, if no action occurs, use the imperfective, and if one uses the perfective it means Failure to do X, (when it was expected). Я не звонил няшке моей. (I didn't phone her; nothing happened; i wasn't even thinking about her). Я не позвонил няшке моей. (I didn't phone her; but I should have; she's at the gym; she wanted a ride ...


4

встретиться isn't yet perceived as modal verb in Russian, that's why in the 1st sentence чтобы is required in the 2nd one хотеть is a modal verb hence no чтобы BUT чтобы is unnecessary when the 2nd verb is in the same tense as the 1st one, namely future, in the past and the present such construction isn't possible Давайте встретимся поговориМ об этом ...


4

Yes, generally correct. "В прескверном настроении шёл я по городу" - yes, at least for the purpose of current context, the movement here is unidirectional. In larger context, the author may be wandering, but in situational context his movement is unidirectional. "Она ходит по комнате" - yes, this implies movement without specific direction. In the context, ...


3

At the risk of repeating what's already been said: 'How are you' is almost not a question but a mere token of politeness akin to what 'How do you do' used to be. The one asking 'How are you' does not expect to hear in response how they really are. Opposite to that, when you use one of the Russian phrases you are asking about, you do expect some response ...


3

Let's say it again: nowadays Russian speakers do not have a totally neutral form of "How are you". Which means usually you do one of these: Informal way of saying "Hello". This rules out any formal stuff above. Say instead "Как жизнь?", "Как сам?", "Как ваше ничего?" etc.etc. Real asking of "how are you". This requires you to be more precise. Sort of "Как ...


3

These are two aspects of the same verb: Imperfective aspect: Приглашать. Perfective aspect: Пригласить. More info and examples: External link.


3

Most widely known language mistakes among native speakers are "ложить" and "зво́нит" (instead of "звони́т"). For example Тут ударила мне кровь в голову. — Ложи, — говорю, — взад! А она испужалась. Рассказ Зощенко "Аристократка" (1923). In this classic text, saying "ложи́" immidiately indicates education level of the speaker. As far as I know, ...


3

дели instead of подели would certainly change the meaning — from a single, completed action to either a repeated one, or prolonged and not necessarily completed. Using ты with an imperative form is poetic licence, mostly used in songs and generally shunned by "serious" poets and songwriters. Which particular verb it's used with is of no real significance. ...


3

дели небо поровну ----------------- время: сейчас/завтра; как: как обычно / как всегда / как прежде, не один раз; совершенность: кто говорит, не знает, завершится процесс "делить" или нет; длительность: от мгновения до бесконечности; результат: никто не заботится о результате процесса ...


3

By the way, I came across this not too long ago—


3

"Мы уже один раз порисовали" может иметь иронический смысл. Похожие конструкции с ироническим смыслом: 1."Идите погуляйте в лесу. - Спасибо, мы уже один раз погуляли". 2. "Поплавайте в пруду. - Спасибо, мы уже один раз поплавали." (Во во время прогулки и купания случилось что-то неприятное.) "Мы уже один раз рисовали." Ребёнка, который только-только начал ...


3

Подобный вопрос был задан на грамоте.ру. Ответ такой: Правильно: прилагать усилия. С глаголом совершенного вида приложить в значении 'направить действие чего-л. на что-л., применить' соотносится глагол несовершенного вида прилагать.


3

Leaving aside the ugliness of this excerpt, the choice of perfective/imperfective is sometimes absolutely free. On the first occurence, the speaker says about what already happened, while they were riding. Thus he/she must use perfective. But on the second occurence he/she has a free choice. The difference is really subtle. By choosing perfective one shows ...


3

Difference is in time/duration of frightening effect. Напугать - brief sudden effect. E.g: меня напугала ваша собака Испугать - kind of an instant effect. E.g. меня испугала перспектива остаться без работы


3

Well, first of all, there is a bunch of dual-aspect verbs, i.e. perfective and imperfective at the same time. See, for example, wiktionary:Двувидовые глаголы. They are prefixless, though. Next, there are some perfective verbs which do not add anything to the meaning of its imperfective pair, except the completeness of the action. The most obvious example, ...


3

There are some verbs that do not have imperfective counterpart: f.e. уцелеть. There are some verbs that do not have perfective counterpart: находиться, существовать (s. the other answer). And there are some verbs that need context to become imperfective or perfective: обследовать: Врач уже обследовал меня (perfective). Врач обследовал меня целых три часа (...


2

"Я не спросил его." I didn't ask (and won't have a chance to ask any more). "Я не спрашивал его." I didn't ask (but may still ask). "Я не стал его спрашивать." I chose not to ask.


2

I believe what Duolingo is trying to tell you, not very effectively, is that unprefixed verbs of motion have two imperfectives: (1) the so-called iterative (2) and the multidirectional. Aside from these, there is also a perfective with prefixed по-. So in the case of going (on foot), these would be идти impf, ходить impf, and пойти perf, respectively. ...


2

Russian verbs are not to be divided into "prefixed" and "unprefixed", but rather into perfective and imperfective. Переходить is imperfective, which means it has "normal" present tense: Я перехожу мост = I cross / I am crossing the bridge. (But it has both past and future tense too: "Я переходил" and "Я буду переходить"). But Перейти is perfective, which ...


2

The difference in usage. 1."Пригласить" means to invite somebody just once (on some occasion). Она пригласила его на свадьбу. Позвольте пригласить вас на танец. 2."Приглашать" is used in most other cases. (a) somebody was invited numerous times, each time, etc. Каждый год я приглашал её на Рождество. (b) in some negative expressions Он пришёл в ...


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