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8

Not at all. People use если есть all the time, and avoiding it would be as gratuitously pedantic as avoiding был бы. The connection is no longer felt, and the есть ли of your examples 4–6 is a spelling mistake despite being etymologically correct.


6

It is a simple sentence with two homogeneous predicates. There's only one subject both predicates refer to. That's why your teacher is right, there should be no comma in this sentence. It is a common mistake nowadays when people are non-educated enough to put commas whenever they take breath. Even breaking the punctuation rules and common sense. That's why ...


5

It all depends on context; the rules are not set in stone; the "который" relative clauses in Russian are neither invariably/intrinsically non-restrictive nor invariably/intrinsically restrictive by default. I've come up with two colloquial sentences to illustrate the difference: Если и есть что-то хуже нарциссов, так это люди, которые не умеют держать ...


4

You can't see the difference between a restrictive and non-restrictive который, but you can hear it. If the noun phrase that который refers to is stressed and you can sort of "hear" the comma, i.e. the overall tone falls off and starts picking up again on который, it's non-restrictive. If it's restrictive, the noun phrase and который have about the same ...


4

Grammar I found a couple of relevant articles on RusGram.ru: Сослагательное наклонение, paragraph 4.2 Модальность, paragraph 2.4 Quoting the second one: В русском языке отчетливо противопоставлены реальное условие (с будущим временем в обеих частях условной конструкции) и контрфактивное (с сослагательным наклонением), ср. примеры (2а) и (2б) (примеры (...


3

Strange advice. Я не люблю людей, кто моложе меня is ungrammatical. Sounds like the kind of mistake an English speaker would make. Кто never introduces a subordinate clause without a preceding form of тот (in the appropriate gender, case, and number), unless the main clause's verb is imperative. Я не люблю людей моложе меня (no comma) is correct and that's ...


3

Какая can take any case according to the content of the second clause, as you suggest: Она такая, какая есть. Она такая, какой была раньше. Она такая, какой можно многое пообещать. Она такая, какую ещё поискать надо. Она такая, какой можно гордиться. Она такая, на какой можно даже жениться.


2

Yes, it's absolutely valid and correct. путешествовать в этом году зависит от того, сколько денег останется после ремонта чердака The first clause is incorrect, unless you've omitted the beginning. In this case the infinitive cannot function as a subject by itself, we need a conventional subject in a form of a noun, eg. Возможность путешествовать в ...


2

You'll get some pieces of textbooks yet, no doubt, but such constructions with words omitted but implied are possible, yes. Not only those two verbs may be involved. It could be: "Я не знаю [того], кто с кем играет". Your examples: "я не интересуюсь [тем], кто с кем..."; "надеюсь [на то, что] все будет хорошо". Now, the use of the verb "требовать" quoted ...


2

From your examples it's evident that какой is part of the second clause and inflects accordingly. In all your examples какой is in the instrumental case which is required by был/увидел. You can use nominative with был (Она такая, какая она была раньше.) but to me that sounds colloquial. See also this question.


2

I just want to add to the previous answer that putting a comma doesn't convert a simple sentence to a complex sentence. There is no such a rule and your teacher was totally right telling you that it's only writers' privilege to make one more simple sentence out of nothing, just by putting a comma. A comma doesn't create any more main clauses than there are ...


1

I disagree with placing a comma there even if it were author's intention, but there is an alternative way without restructuring the sentence. The pause in your sentence is implicit and well-understood: actions отправиться на море and наловить много рыбы are consecutive, and the latter takes some time to complete. The question is, what do you want to signify ...


1

No, for russian speaker it hears if is or if eat dont forget to be | eat = есть so there is also lexem ambigity here, russian is so weird. P.S. Do not judge modern russian by reading old one with ѣ whatever


1

КоторЫЕ is in Nominative in the sentence #2 (subject книги) but in Accusative in the sentence #3 (the subject is этот автор while книги is the object), but in both cases it's которЫЕ since this inflexion fits both grammatical cases Nominative and Accusative which are used for subject and object in plural respectively, it refers to книги, because they're the ...


1

Since prepositions require the nouns following them to be declined, I didn't know what change would verbs undergo, since the infinitive of a verb is not a declinable word. Nouns decline to the correct case, verbs just become inifinitive. Вместо того, чтобы признать свою ошибку, он грубо отнёсся ко мне. Correct. There's a price in being an ...


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