29

First of all, there is a big difference between calling someone by the combination of his first name and his patronymic name (Иван Кузьмич) and calling someone by his patronymic name only (Кузьмич). The first variant is the standard formal way, and the second variant is very informal. I assume you are asking about the first variant. Another important thing ...


21

It's neither a nickname, nor a dinimutive. It's just a form which became distinctive from the (borrowed through Greek) Иосиф and happily co-exist with it just like Johannes co-exist with John. While it indeed initially was introduced at lower-class usage I'm not sure it can be treated as regionalism - I'd rather say it is Russian vulgar version of the name....


17

Very often. The fun thing about patronymics is that they are huge part of colloquial usage as well. In a friendly conversation one can omit name completely and use just patronymic, like in "Что-то ты, Никитична, сегодня не в духе". Even in most liberal schools students still tend to refer to professors with patronymic. As of jobs - there are many spheres ...


16

In modern Russian language the title "Товарищ" may be used in such variants: just "товарищ" - may be used for addressing a stranger. ("Эй, товарищ! Куда вы пошли?" - "Hey sir! Where did you go?"). It's somewhat outdated and less ceremonious than English "sir". "товарищи" (in plural) - used for addressing to audience. Sounds more crony and isn't official. ...


13

Very often, but somewhat less often than decades ago. First of all, the form addressing strongly depends on a scenario. If some scenarios, patronymics are used almost universally, in others, their usage has declined. At school - addressing teachers. This is where children still address adults by First Name + Patronymic; At work - addressing colleagues, and ...


13

Прошу прощения за доставленные хлопоты, за беспокойство,за то, что отнял у Вас время. Any will do, I think.


11

"Преподаватель" is more often a professor in college or university, or instructor on some specific courses. While you can list (and consider) teachers in school as "преподаватели" the reverse is not true - nobody calls anyone "учитель" in system of higher education. Also, "учитель" is uses for describing someone who is a spiritual teacher. Sort of like ...


10

The predicate (short) form is mandatorily plural: вы красивы. However, when full-form adjectives are used colloquially as predicates, singular sounds more natural: вы такая красивая, etc.


7

Literal and perfectly acceptable translation: "Было приятно с вами работать" (bYlo pr'iyAtna s vAm'i rabOtat'). The last "t" is soft, as in the word tea. The "m" is soft as in the word me. The soft "r" in "pr'iyAtna" has no analogue in English. You can also say "сотрудничать" (satrUdnichat') instead of "работать", which to some degree would imply ...


6

I believe, both преподаватель and учитель are positions: учитель - at school, преподаватель - at university, professional courses etc. Also учитель has another meaning: mentor.


5

Actually, Sandra's answer is very accurate, but I'd like to say, that there are common cases when you always use first name + patronymic: 1) When you want to show your respect for the other person. 2) When you refer to person who is much older than you are. However, women can be offended by this sometimes, usually when you overestimate the age difference. ...


5

Take your pick: Убить одним выстрелом двух зайцев (Kill two rabbits with one shot) (Дать) и вашим, и нашим (Please one's friends and enemies) Сидеть на двух стульях (Sit on two chairs) Объять необъятное (Embrace the unembraceable) The last two are normally used in the negative sense: На двух стульях не усидишь (You can't sit on two chairs) Нельзя объять ...


5

"И волки сыты, и овцы целы." (The wolves are fed and the sheep are safe.) Often used as a metaphor of two mutually exclusive goals.


4

Close friends can use твой/твоя +name without any additional (emotional ) feeling nowadays. But in Russian culture we use other patterns : we say *hello,hi" starting the letter (emails ) and often finish them with "bye".Your friend would say Пока.Что у тебя новенького?Пиши.Анна. But everything depends on the relationship. We can suspect a flavour of romance ...


4

seems like it could be misconstrued as a request for romantic intimacy. Perhaps, but it's totally okay among just the close friends. In fact, "Yours + name" is uncommon for lovers.


3

"Извините, что я вас напрасно обнадежил (обнадежила, if the speaker is female)" - это самое близкое по смыслу в данном случае. Но "извините, что отнял (отняла) у вас время" - самый стандартный вариант, вас сразу поймут.


2

1) There should definitely be a comma behind "что" that you missed, such as "Извините, что побеспокоил", to mark another part of the sentence. 2) The list of possible synonims is very long, too long to be fully listed in here. However, here are some examples (partially already noted by V.V.): Извините, что (побеспокоил/отнял Ваше время/потревожил) Извините ...


1

"нельзя быть немножко беременной" or "нельзя быть наполовину беременной" (выбор между двумя противоположными альтернативами. Попытка выбрать что-то промежуточное или невозможна, или приведёт к одной из них.) A bit rude expressions: и невинность соблюсти, и дитя приобрести и честь соблюсти, и капитал приобрести


1

Позже and попозже tend to express a time delay from some event or from current moment, while the version позднее is typically based on time in numbers (days, months, years, etc. - mentioned or not) and попозднее often refers to some later hours of day cycle. That is why (не) позднее is used in formal conditional clauses with numbers. Это было позже. (...


1

To me the sentence sounds perfectly fine. In my opinion, and as already implied in V.V.'s response, it's a matter of style and usus. According to my gut feeling the choice of позже and позднее affects wording of a clause and simple substitution of one with the other won't do. With позже it would sound more euphonic being worded as Так что любовь [к ...


1

Розенталь says that some adverbs can have two synthetic comparative forms :более – больше, менее – меньше, далее – дальше, ранее – раньше, позднее – позже, where the forms with -ее are bookish or formal Списки избирателей должны быть составлены не позднее указанного срока. whereas those with - ше(-же) are neutral and can be used in both bookish and ...


1

In this case you mix both more formal greeting with less formal name form. It makes sense when situation implies the same mixture of relations. E.g. a formal meeting held at work between ppl knowing each other for decades. They call each other with just names outside of the office, but they have to make a semi-formal appearance, though not to formal to use ...


1

Yes, it's permissible. It sounds not official then, could be used between friends in a jocular way: "Товарищ Петя, пойдём гулять".


1

I would say these 'friends' aren't that platonic if they sign their letters like that. I assume they have some sort of romantic feelings to each other, even if they know they could never be together and all that's left is to write letters. Nowadays not a lot of people write each other paper letters, but in this situation if we are talking about friends I'd ...


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