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14

Negative construction with "нет" always needs genitive in Russian and answers the question "нет кого/чего", and not "нет кто" which is ungrammatical: Нет кого? - Нет мамы. However you can say "Мама не здесь" (as opposite of "мама здесь") which is totally correct.


13

При переходных глаголах с отрицанием в одних случаях явно преобладает употребление родительного падежа дополнения, в других – употребление винительного падежа, в третьих – наблюдается факультативное их использование. Падеж дополнения при переходных глаголах с отрицанием (Розенталь Д.Э. и др. Справочник.) But your observation is correct -- usually genitive ...


7

The thing in in Russian the phrase "Mom is not here anymore" is sort of answering the question "Whom do we miss here" rather than "Who is not here?" - it quite a subtle difference regarding the fact that the usage of "whom" is declining, but luckily it's still a thing in English so I can use it for explanation ) whom? - кого (genitive) who? - кто (...


6

Well, there are some rules for this, let me give a translation. So, transitive verbs with negation are governed by genitive or accusative in following cases: genitive (usually used) With strong negation with ни particle - "Не люблю ни чрезмерной жары, ни чрезмерного холода". With partitive objects - Не cделал вычислений. After verbs видеть, слышать, ...


6

When you use negation meaning that something or someone is absent, especially strong negation (not here anymore) it's natural in Russian to use нет, which demands genitive нет (кого,чего?) мамы, хлеба. Otherwise you can say Мама не в Москве,она в Саратове. Or Мамы нет в Москве, она в Саратове.


5

The negative statements are off. Я не был студентом - Instrumental just like in the positive statement. Я не студент - Nominative just like in the positive statement. Genitive negative is only applicable in cases where what's described is not an attribute inherent to the noun or actions performed by it but eventivity associated with it or to which it's ...


3

"I don't see the table" should be translated as "Я не вижу стол" "I don't see a table" should be translated as "Я не вижу стола"


3

This is a type of sentence which is called impersonal (subjectless). Please take a look. With negation of the verb существовать this form of sentence is especially common. It's also a normative pattern for negation of the verb быть (бывать). While there's me is translated as я есть, there's no me is translated as меня нет where меня is Genitive of я. ...


2

In the construction X was/were/will be somebody/something somebody/something should be in the Instrumental case irrespective of whether it is affirmative or negative: Я был студентом — Я не был студентом Мы были студентами — Мы не были студентами Вы будете студентами — Вы не будете студентами The Genitive case is used after быть iт the following negative ...


2

The reason is that you use negation with genitive. "слов" is in genitive case and therefore lose the role of subject in the sentence. If instead you switch to nominative, the verb will change to plural as you expected: Не найдутся такие слова.


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