11

Both forms are correct. "Встань" - is for "[you,] stand up!" - it's the imperative form. "Встать!" is the infinitive form that also can be used in modern Russian as an imperative. The difference is that infinitive imperative is more command-like, hard and generally speaking more offensive. A policemen can shout out: "Встать!", but mother would tell her son:...


10

Yes, откройте sounds more polite, especially when followed by пожалуйста. Открывайте is more likely to be followed by сейчас же! (immediately!).


7

The first imperative can be used when addressing a single person whom you usually call ты (a child or somebody close enough to you). The second version is applicable to somebody you call вы (in most such cases you also add пожалуйста for politeness, 'please') or to multiple listeners.


7

поцелуй (a kiss) Vasmer: «Произошло из формы 2 л. повел. накл. от поцелова́ть»


4

Grammar I found a couple of relevant articles on RusGram.ru: Сослагательное наклонение, paragraph 4.2 Модальность, paragraph 2.4 Quoting the second one: В русском языке отчетливо противопоставлены реальное условие (с будущим временем в обеих частях условной конструкции) и контрфактивное (с сослагательным наклонением), ср. примеры (2а) и (2б) (примеры (...


4

Упокой (as in начал за здравие, кончил за упокой) is imperative of Church Slavonic упокоити which was loaned into Russian as a noun meaning "eternal peace".


4

Your understanding of word "научись" is good. I've watched the scene. You've missed a slight pause (or rather that there are two stresses instead of one): it's not "научись", but "на, учись". "На" is not only a preposition, but also an independent word (not sure what exactly it is). It can be roughly translated as "take it", or "here" I believe you've ...


4

Your language is so rich and nuanced in this regard I guess it's not as much as Japanese. Also, this is quite common in many languages to have fine distinctions between orders, polite requests, etc. Also, as it's usual, the intonation could change really much in this regard. (1) Возьми нож и быстро нарежь рыбу! (Imperative) You could think it as "normal"...


4

It does matter. Imperfective imperative is not necessarily rude if mitigated by some words of politeness and/or intonation and verbosity, i.e. Ну, давайте, открывайте скоренько Without such dampers it certainly may be perceived as confrontational, more aggressive. I believe the difference between them stems from the fact that semantically perfective ...


3

More examples that you would probably classify as not-a-real-nominalisation: угадайка ванька-встанька Both are likely derived from the imperatives + the particle -ка (встань-ка) that has been grammaticalised as the suffix к + ending а, although I cannot find any good evidence either for or against this thesis.


3

All these sentences are valid meaning you invite someone to come to your place and show some pictures. Заходи как-нибудь, покажешь фотки! {Imperative + Future} (come and you will/can show) Заходи как-нибудь, покажи фотки! {Imperative + Imperative}(come and show) 3.Заходи как-нибудь показать фотки! {Imperative + Infinitive} (come in order to show--purpose )...


3

I'm assuming this phrase means "come and show me the photos sometime" Your assumption is correct. I wonder if "Заходи, покажешь X" is the construction commonly used... Yes, it is quite a usual way to say this. Do the following alternatives sound odd? Заходи как-нибудь, покажи фотки! I can think of a situation wherein someone would use these words, ...


3

дели instead of подели would certainly change the meaning — from a single, completed action to either a repeated one, or prolonged and not necessarily completed. Using ты with an imperative form is poetic licence, mostly used in songs and generally shunned by "serious" poets and songwriters. Which particular verb it's used with is of no real significance. ...


3

дели небо поровну ----------------- время: сейчас/завтра; как: как обычно / как всегда / как прежде, не один раз; совершенность: кто говорит, не знает, завершится процесс "делить" или нет; длительность: от мгновения до бесконечности; результат: никто не заботится о результате процесса ...


2

A Sum-up упокой (idiomatic: eternal peace), from Church Slavonic упокоити поцелуй (a kiss), from поцелова́ть (to give a kiss) Guessed words: нагоняй (scolding), …


1

(1) Возьми нож и быстро нарежь рыбу! (Imperative) Firm request or order (ex., from cook to his helper) (2) Взяла нож и быстро нарезала рыбу! (Past tense) order with threatening (you may think of family violence) (3) Берешь нож и быстро режешь рыбу! (Present tense) order + explanation (think of cook teaching newbie) (4) Сейчас ты возьмешь нож и ...


1

For a boss' request, #1 is definitely the most appropriate option. For a boyfriend's request, "hypothetical mood" might be preferable, but your option (#5) is poorly worded. (1) Возьми нож и быстро нарежь рыбу! (Imperative) - just fine; (2) Взяла нож и быстро нарезала рыбу! (Past tense) - colloquial and impolite (pushy); (3) Берешь нож и быстро режешь ...


1

In this case, "На", as noted above, is a separate grammatical unit. There was a pause with which you can determine that the phrase sounds like "На, учись". "На" can also be translated as "here you go". But "take it" is quite a viable option. What I can also state is that "на" is definitely a particle. In Russian, they are used mainly to change the ...


1

Приди - It is imperative within a non-strict sense of commanding (imperative) to do something. "Come to my house and show me.... blabla..." Приходи- It is a no-deal strict order, but you can use it when you are confident to someone also, and you are eager and happy to see the other one that you can say "You will have come to my house" (Will have participle ...


1

Formal linguistics is not always true, but rather completely wrong in many cases. The first expression would be: "Complete (the) opening (process), please" The second expression would be: "Start opening, please(already)" It would depend on situation, when the process is assumed to be finished or to be just started. For 1 the first would be more polite, for ...


1

I can't think of any one-word examples, or of compounds not containing a noun, except two: тяни-толкай (which seems to be a literary coinage) and уйди-уйди (or уди-уди), which is the name of a squeaky toy and so is perhaps better thought of as onomatopoeic.


1

There is a slight difference between them, the infinite sentences used as imperative are much more aggressive and exigent. For example, only infinite sentences are used to train dogs: Ша́рик, сиде́ть! Sharik (dog's name), sit! Ты посиди́ здесь, а я пойду́ посмотрю́, в чём там де́ло. Stay (sit) here, and I will see what is happening.


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