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8

Ломоносов жил 300 лет назад. The Russian language has changed a lot since his fabulous time. :) Едать и игрывать are easily recognized as archaic words influencing the style. Nowadays we have thee time-tenses (Past, Present, Future) and two aspects (non-perfective + perfective). Perfective verbs are not used in the Present. As the means of ...


7

That corresponds to Future Progressive in English: The memory will be coming back to them.


7

Конвульсирующего or конвульсировавшего? Are both variants acceptable? Is any of them preferable? If so, which one? I chose the present tense to stress that the squid was convulsing as I sliced it. I think present participle, the one did you opt for, is preferable. Past participle would have a connotation of convulsing at one point in the past but not ...


7

Sometimes the agreement of verb predicates with subjects is governed by rather complex rules. With two or more subjects and one predicate, the general rules are: (a) When the predicate follows the subjects, it is normally in the plural: Книга и газета лежали на столе. До завтрака хлеб и сыр были на столе. (b) When the predicate precedes the ...


6

The difference in aspect in Russian does not correspond to English concept of Perfect, let alone the difference between "will" and "to be going to". It is merely a matter of point-of-view: "буду продолжать" focuses on the process, or maybe that the action will be repeated "продолжу" focuses on the result (i.e "I'll stop doing whatever keeps me from this, ...


6

Напишу-ка я свой ответ на русском. Полагаю, Мицуко вполне сможет его прочесть и перевести. И, возможно, так будет даже полезнее. Да, раз уж мы намерены "translate absolutely flawlessly and in the most natural way", я обещаю цепляться ко всему, что мне хотя бы чуть-чуть не понравится, то есть буду субъективен nec plus ultra. Ну что ж, давайте по частям. ...


6

Since your original question was more generic than a specific question about two verbs, I'd venture my opinion on that broader question. It is unfair to compare Lomonosov's grammar to the modern Russian grammar. Both of them try to explain all flexible word forms and establish a minimal group of orthogonal (mutually independent) properties, so that all ...


5

You can think of both forms as 'future tense': давайте (будем) пить чай or давайте попьём чаю The difference is that imperfective verbs take the auxiliary verb будем (-ет, ут) to form future tense (будем + infinitive). In this particular expression будем can be omitted without any change in sense: it's either way a suggestion for future action. So, ...


5

"Я мог бы покляться" appears in many translations of English books. However, it sounds bookish and not quite idiomatic. Let me turn the tables around a bit and ask: why does English use the conditional mood in "I could've sworn"? Is it to say "I could have sworn but I didn't because I knew I was wrong?" Probably not. The use of conditional makes the ...


5

I can see how this can be confusing. Он не был в школе. means "He was not at school". У него не было плохого настроения. is properly translated as "He was not in a bad mood," but it literally means "He did not have a bad mood". In English you can be in a mood, but in Russian you have moods. In general, the construction "У него не было..." ...


5

If you can say like that, then едать and игрывать are absolutely normal verbs and do not have the connotation of distant past (and hence I was taught wrong things) In modern Russian language verbs forms of habitual or intermittent action in the past tense do bear a connotation of distant past, as they can't be accompanied by adverbials of time implying ...


5

Yes, more or less so, except for the two examples involving 'ходить'. Although 'Я буду мочь ходить' may seem grammatically correct, no one says «буду мочь». These words just don't go together (despite Wiktionary quoting «буду/будешь… мо́чь»). Instead, use 'смогу': Я (снова) смогу ходить. 'I will be able to walk (again).' If you want to say 'Don't worry, I ...


4

This is not unique to the Russian language. Frequently, the past tense is used to create context while the present tense is used to relate events. For example, an English speaker may say: The craziest thing happened on my way to work yesterday! This guy comes up to me and says... The first sentence is context, and the second sentence is the main event.


4

For reasons unknown to me, verbs of movement with prefix "по-" are used in the past tense to indicate intent. In general, prefix "по-" means the beginning of an action when used with any of the following verbs of movement: бежать, вести, везти, гнать, ехать, катить, лезть, лететь, нести, плыть, ползти, тащить, идти. As a result the following phrases are ...


4

Generally swearing isn't typical to modern Russian, but if used it's in the indicative mood including in the form of готов(а) поклясться which is dated and bookish. In the past one would hear вот тебе (истинный) крест and ей-богу, but these are rare nowadays. Modern vernacular replacements include говорю, отвечаю, зуб даю (semi-modern), кроме шуток (slang), ...


3

Давайте пойдем, давайте сыграем, давайте сделаем, давайте купим, давайте скажем - all those Perfect forms denote actions as such, which we propose to start, perform and finish. Давайте идти быстрее, давайте говорить громче, давайте пить чай - these infinitive forms express processes. Давайте покупать чаще, давайте говорить друг другу комплименты, давайте ...


3

The conditional mood in Russian is 'timeless'. Specific time references may be needed to resolve the ambiguity: Если бы у меня был миллион долларов... If I had a million dollars... Если бы у меня год назад был миллион долларов... If I had had a million dollars a year ago... However, motion verbs do carry some temporal meaning: Если бы мне не надо было ...


3

Although it may mean that the desire has come or had come depending on the context, I won't use the phrase to say I want to drink now. To make it sound natural in the present perfect sense you have to relax it, make it sound more colloquial, for example: Мне что-то захотелось пить. - I'm kind of thirsty. Notice that что-то is not an object of пить, but ...


3

This is ambiguous, it can function as both Past Simple and Present Perfect. Past Simple - Когда я наелся вяленой рыбы, мне так захотелось пить, что я выпил литр воды за раз. Present Perfect - Мне захотелось пить, у тебя не найдётся минералочки?


3

All these sentences are valid meaning you invite someone to come to your place and show some pictures. Заходи как-нибудь, покажешь фотки! {Imperative + Future} (come and you will/can show) Заходи как-нибудь, покажи фотки! {Imperative + Imperative}(come and show) 3.Заходи как-нибудь показать фотки! {Imperative + Infinitive} (come in order to show--purpose )...


3

I'm assuming this phrase means "come and show me the photos sometime" Your assumption is correct. I wonder if "Заходи, покажешь X" is the construction commonly used... Yes, it is quite a usual way to say this. Do the following alternatives sound odd? Заходи как-нибудь, покажи фотки! I can think of a situation wherein someone would use these words, ...


3

Indeed были can be used without много, which ultimately changes the meaning of the sentence В этот период у нас были неожиданные трудности. (no info on their volume) No. In the original sentence the subject is not неожиданные трудности but много (неожиданных трудностей), and naturally the predicate быть conforms to the properties of the subject. It's ...


3

When не is written separately, I can only think of two cases when it's stressed: the past tense of быть, except the feminine form (so нé был, нé было, нé были, but не былá); the pronouns некого and нечего when split by a preposition: нé у кого, нé с чем. The -а in the feminine past tense is not always stressed, and I'm sorry to say there's no useful rule ...


3

"there wasn't going to be an event" has some connotations which are not represented by the translation "не знал/думал, что мероприятия (не) будет". When you want to say "не знал, что мероприятие будет", you can perfectly fine say it in English "I didn't know that the event will happen [after all]". It's 100% correct translation which communicates the ...


3

You are correct, this is the best option. There is no future in the past tense in Russian as a separate language mechanism but it perfectly works as a way you have done it. So all situations like this are covered by putting verbs in the past and in the future tenses all together. The only thing should be fixed is пришёл (instead of приходил) because it's ...


3

Yup, definitely works. It doesn't go much deeper than that. If the situation is you specifically talking about some moment in the past, you may also add "тогда" or/and "ещё": "Я тогда ещё не знал, что ..." or "Тогда я не знал что" etc. However, it is exactly for "story" about past events, stressing the fact that at the time you describe you did not know ...


3

There is no Past Perfect in Russian. You will have to use additional words, e.g.: Так я проиграл игру, которую вот было уже выигрывал. Он принес рыбу, которую она незадолго до этого приготовила. Or: Он принес рыбу, которую она долго готовила вплоть до прихода гостей. Or, if you want to preserve as much of the original semantics as possible: Он принес ...


3

Ему пришлось бежать быстрее своего соплеменника, ибо оказавшемуся последним предстояло быть съеденным львом.


3

There is no exact translation, so you should use some other phrasing that will have roughly same meaning, depending on the context. The simplest approach would be to use a verb stating your intent, such as "планировать" (to plan), "собираться" (to be going to), etc: Мы прибыли в порт. Следующие две недели мы планировали плавать на яхте. ...


3

The English Future-in-the-Past tenses are rendered as the Russian Future tenses. The English tenses have absolute meaning: • the Past tenses tell about the past, • Future-in-the-Past tenses tell about what would be after an event in the past, • the Future tenses tell about what will be after now. As you can see, there are two main points on the timeline, ...


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