10

Yes, откройте sounds more polite, especially when followed by пожалуйста. Открывайте is more likely to be followed by сейчас же! (immediately!).


8

I was expecting an imperfective verb, because "writing" is a process. Perfective verbs are about state transition and imperfective verbs are about state. Usually (usually) the state implies some process, and the state transition implies the start or the end of this process, but it's not always the case. Я помогу Татьяне писать письмо This would ...


6

This verb accepts both accusative and dative, but its meaning depends on the case used. повредить кому-нибудь (чему-нибудь) means "to hurt or harm smb./smth.", as opposed to "to help smb./smth.". This is about indirect, circumstantial or long-term damage. повредить что-нибудь means "to damage something". This is rarely if ever ...


6

If you say "я хочу ехать" it will mean that you want to find yourself in an act of riding/travelling/moving right now. The same, for instance, with пойти, so: Я хочу идти - I want to be going. Я хочу пойти - I want to go. The thing is that indeed по- add the perfective aspect - however in this particular case you should think of this as if the person ...


6

Слышал in the second sentence is somewhat idiomatic. If you replace it with услышал, this sentence now would mean "that's how I heard that", not "that's what I heard". This would assume that hearing or listening was already the topic of the conversation, and the speaker elaborates on what exactly did he hear, not whether or not he heard ...


5

You can just translate the phrase "I will be finished cooking when you arrive": Я (уже) закончу готовить еду, когда ты приедешь. but it's enough just to use the word "уже" itself: Я уже приготовлю еду, когда ты приедешь. or slightly better: Когда ты приедешь, я уже приготовлю еду. But I would recommend: Когда ты приедешь, еда уже будет готова.


5

So there are a few things going on here. In Russian verbs can contain prefixes (like на- here) and hence change its meaning and even grammatical properties. So such verbs are not always a pair, since they are actually two different words which have the same root (цел). In this situation in English нацелить и целить do mean the same thing, but the difference ...


5

Я не могу выехать из гаража - "I can't drive out of the garage" (Right now, for any reason). Я не могу выезжать из гаража - same "I can't drive out of the garage" (But generally, either because driving ability is a little limited, or this is not allowed). Нельзя въехать на территорию завода - "Can't drive into the plant territory" (Right now, likely because ...


5

1. In addition to Quassnoi's reply it can be said that повредить + Dative WITHOUT Accusative (unlike in my example below) means to (cause/inflict) harm, whereas повредить + Dative WITH Accusative (like in my example below) means to damage According to my experience in the sense of to (cause/inflict) harm (that is without a direct object) it is the ...


5

When the verb is transitive you have to use a perfective form in positive sentences, like in Мне нужно это найти. As suggested by Баян Купи-ка in the comments imperfective form is also valid here when you talk about some stretched in time duty: Мне нужно находить решения, приемлемые для всех - I [always] have to look for solutions, suitable for everyone. ...


5

Q: most likely таскать will remain imperfective when preceded by в-, вы-, при-. Whereas тащить will become the perfective counterpart of the prefixed verb. A: With respect to this particular verb the opposite is true, it will be turned into perfective. With prefix its IMperfective aspect will look like в-/вы-/при-тасК-ИВ-ать Your statement however does ...


5

Yes, more or less so, except for the two examples involving 'ходить'. Although 'Я буду мочь ходить' may seem grammatically correct, no one says «буду мочь». These words just don't go together (despite Wiktionary quoting «буду/будешь… мо́чь»). Instead, use 'смогу': Я (снова) смогу ходить. 'I will be able to walk (again).' If you want to say 'Don't worry, I ...


4

Потащить - to start drag Потаскать - to drag a bit around Оттаскать - to drag around quite enough Затаскать - to drag around up to changed condition


4

Since the prefix по- mostly shows the beginning of the action, you can say it's the most generic meaning comparing to other prefixes. So полезть can be a safe variant like потащить and потаскать.


4

It does matter. Imperfective imperative is not necessarily rude if mitigated by some words of politeness and/or intonation and verbosity, i.e. Ну, давайте, открывайте скоренько Without such dampers it certainly may be perceived as confrontational, more aggressive. I believe the difference between them stems from the fact that semantically perfective ...


4

Compare the phrases "я заказал вам номер" and "я заказывал вам номер". The first one is about the very fact of booking, and the speaker is informing someone that this job is done. When someoone is using the form "заказывал," the emphasis is not on the booking itself - it's just a phrase that's used as a link to what follows next, as in: Я заказывал вам ...


4

From the book "The Iconostasis" (Иконостас) by P. A. Florenskiy (П. А. Флоренский): он питал внутри себя необоримое желание — живописать Деву Марию в небесном Ее совершенстве (he nourished within himself an irresistible desire - to paint the Virgin Mary in Her heavenly perfection) – imperfective и вот почему удалось ему живописать Матерь Божию в ...


3

Either aspect is valid in both sentences. Можете наре́зать хлеб и сыр? It means "can you slice the bread and cheese?" (or, rather, "can you have the bread and cheese sliced?") Можете нареза́ть хлеб и сыр? It means "Can you be slicing bread and cheese?" It's not a common way to put it, but I can imagine a situation where this would be a ...


3

Regular imperfective counterparts for стать, сесть, лечь should have been *ставать, *седать, *легать, but those forms have fallen out of use as standalone words in the codified language, though they continue to exist as roots: встать / вставать, присесть / приседать, налечь / налегать. These forms have been suppleted with the reflexive causatives: -...


3

The imperfective aspect is about state, and the perfective is about state transition. переводившие here means "the students who have been translating the article," i.e. all those who have ever been "in a state of translating the article." As long as the student spent at least some time translating the article, they would qualify for переводившие. Its ...


3

The difference here is uncompleted vs. completed action, as expressed by the respective pairs of forms of the verbs. In a couple of words, you could compare that to the difference between continuous and perfect tenses in English. Beyond that, it's textbooks and vocabularies materiel.


3

"Пытаться" and "попытыться", apart from continuous vs one-time effort, has another difference in Russian language. "Пытаться" is associated with an all-out, earnest effort to do something. "Попытыться" implies that either the effort was inadequate, or the chance of success was small to begin with. "Он пытался ...


3

Yes, живописать is a biaspectual verb, meaning its perfective and imperfective forms coincide. Imperfective: И пока Рахатов живописал совсем не оригинальную эпопею, Женя думала о другом. // [Ольга Новикова. Женский роман (1993)] Perfective: Фома рассказал, перемежая рассказ сдачей карт, подробно живописал тварей из здешних бассейнов, зал «эха». // [Сергей ...


2

Russian syntax: aspects of modern Russian syntax and vocabulary has a good description— -Ignore the notes (sorry, it's my personal copy) (F. M. Borras, Reginald Frank Christian)


2

If you need to find it once, мне нужно это найти. Example: you lost your glasses and need to find them as soon as possible. If you need to find it time after time, мне нужно это находить. Example: you have a pet who takes things and hides them in different places in your home. You need to find the lost thing each time it happens.


2

Not sure if Russian is classified as having perfect aspect, but переводившие definitely has a sense of something that is in the past. You would need to use переводящие, if you wanted to stress that the translation was on-going. But переводившие wouldn't necessarily mean that the translation has positively finished. Say, students, last time I was in contact ...


2

Каждый раз я приезжаю/прилетаю__ (1) в новый город и скоро уезжаю/улетаю ___ (2) обратно, в Волгоград. 1 Choice of verbs: you can travel by car, train or fly. Приезжать/прилетать, уезжать/улетать. 2.You chose directions correctly, because there's a certain opposition: come and go Ездить is ok without prefix, with prefixes we use приезжать, уезжать. If ...


2

It sounds logical :) Ложиться - лечь Pay attention that статься has the meaning of случиться, to happen. при-/за-/на-/всмотреться - смотреть дождаться - ждать при-/за-/на-/вслушаться - слушать наесться - есть (and there is a possibility to express having done enough of anything with the prefix на- and the reflexive particle -ся) ...


2

Russian imperfective and perfective verbs, in what is technically the imperative, convey different moods: сядьте and выйдите are imperatives ("do as you're told"), садитесь and выходите are optatives ("do if you feel like that"). This is close to English "go" vs "you should be going." The same holds for interrogative dative constructs: мне выйти? means "do ...


2

There are 2 possible options: 1) Imperfective form highlights that the transaction is incomplete, in a polite manner. One might have ordered something, but the order has not been fulfilled yet. Using perfective for incomplete transaction "Я заказал у вас номер по телефону" may be seen as a prelude to a bitter complaint. This politeness is useful when ...


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