15

You could probably work something out from etymology, but generally speaking no, except this can only happen for unstressed vowels. Russian spelling is mostly morphological, so a good rule of thumb for stem vowels is to try and find a word that has the vowel in question stressed, though this isn’t always possible. For prefixes and suffixes you’ll just have ...


11

Yes, the rule exists and dictates that any vowel except for [у] that follows a soft consonant in an unstressed position is reduced to something between [э] and [и]: часы́ [чисы] яйцо́ [йийцо] ле́чо [лече] река́ [рика] счастли́вый [щисливый] её [йийо] Source: М.В. Пано́в. Ру́сская фоне́тика In particular, this makes the words чистота́ (cleanliness) and ...


8

In standard Russian, the vowel я in the word январь must be reduced to /ɪ/. So, январь sounds [ɪnˈvarʲ] It does not sound like that. Word-initial and post-vocalic я, е, ю, ё, are subject to iotation (prepending the vowel with [j]), so the Forvo pronunciations are correct. The vowel reduction is still there: a stressed word initial я, as in яблоко, would ...


6

The word Европа in this radio station's jingles is uttered using chanting pronunciation (скандирующее произношение) where every syllable is pronounced in isolation and is stressed. Think people chanting "U! - S! - A!" or similar. Besides, the prosody of the lyrics has to follow the music accents. It's not how the word Европа is pronounced in neutral speech....


5

I presume you really care about how Russian “о” is pronounced, not how it’s spelled in English transliteration (which isn’t fixed, but varies depending on who’s doing the transliteration; it looks like you’re using a transliteration that tries to mimic the variation in pronunciation of “о”, which is a bit unusual). Briefly, the way to work out how “о” is ...


5

A big question. 1.In word-initial stressed syllables, un-iotated /ˈi/ occurs. Iotated /ˈji/ doesn't occur at the start of any (?) word in standard Russian. I think so. Some people still pronounce j in those pronouns like им, их, ими. In my region at least. In word-initial unstressed syllables, [jɪ] (which is equated with /ji/; that is, it sounds like ...


5

General rule is that unstressed о is pronounced as а. In my perception though it's not exactly а but something in between.


4

1. The prestressed o is also reduced at least in quite a few foreign words or their grammatical derivatives, e.g. баобаб [bɐɐˈbap], теология [tʲɪɐˈɫoɡʲɪɪ̯ə], биотопливо [ˌbʲiɐˈtoplʲɪvə], реостат [rʲɪɐˈstat], даосизм [dɐɐˈsʲizm]. In хаос it's not reduced [ˈxaəs] but in хаотический it is [xɐɐˈtʲit͡ɕɪskʲɪɪ̯]. In маоизм [mɐoˈizm] it's also not reduced and ...


4

ub-yis-NIA-it (with NIA stressed) ub as in pub yis as in yeast NIA has one vowel sound (not a diphthong): a soft N followed by A it as in it :) You can think of the Ъ as the y sound in yes or yeast. Same goes for Ь in front of a vowel: бульон, пасьянс. You might like this website: http://russiangram.com It transcribes Russian words using English ...


4

I'd suggest to divide it into two separate parts, the prefix об- pronounced as аб- and -яснЯет pronounced as йисьнЯит. Try to pronounce them separately, then combine the two parts back together - aбйисьнЯит. I believe ш you hear because of the sound j subtly present in the phoneme й, but it's by far not as voiced as in the German -ig I unfortunately can't ...


4

In the mind of most literate native speakers, these words "should" be pronounced with Ye, the way they are written. Vowel reduction is a nearly subconscious process which occurs in fluent speech. When you ask someone to read it loud and clear (or sing it), they will probably sound it closer to Ye rather than Yee. Also, longer words like Екатеринбург tend to ...


3

This type of vowel reduction isn't strictly necessary for correct speech, unlike о>а, for example. It happens naturally in fast speech when the speaker doesn't enunciate. In lazy speech it can reduce pretty much to ə or even a glottal stop isn't a vowel at all. It can even reduce to ы if there's a preceding consonant, although this is considered slurred ...


2

Let's start with a small exercise. Say slowly, for instance, Чапаев, then Чипаев, Чепаев, then Чупаев, at last, say, Чопаев. Now say all these words again but quickly, like, very quickly - but actually casual speech can be very quick. See, the difference has gone, they all sound practically the same. This phenomenon you've encountered (of vowels becoming ...


2

Your expectation is justified, in speech прише́дшие is indeed pronounced like [priʃjedʃii], the final [е] gets reduced, пришеччыи The transcription [priʃjedʃije] is also wrong about pronunсiation of [д] which here merges with [ш] to form geminated hard [чч] or is assimilated to form a combination [чш] and thus is essentially not pronounced. Произношение ...


2

If here spelling means what it usually means, i.e. orthography, mostly we spell o and pronounce a in unstressed positions. It is spelled молоко and said [малако], it's simple. As for the rules of writing, we mostly preserve the stem vowels. We can check them knowing other words with the same stem, where the o is stressed. If there are no such words, ...


1

Good question. Being a native speaker, I just pronounced this word a few times to see how I actually pronounce it. My pronunciation is as follows: пришéдши-и. The part after ''ш'' is as follows: I start pronouncing the ''и'' sound, then it gets quieter, and then loud again, but does not break in the middle. It is like two waves, so to speak. Pronounce the ...


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