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15

You could probably work something out from etymology, but generally speaking no, except this can only happen for unstressed vowels. Russian spelling is mostly morphological, so a good rule of thumb for stem vowels is to try and find a word that has the vowel in question stressed, though this isn’t always possible. For prefixes and suffixes you’ll just have ...


14

This is a phenomenon called vowel reduction. A good starting point would be the Wikipedia article on Russian phonology: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_phonology#Vowel_mergers In a nutshell, most Russian dialects distinguish о and а and pronounce them more or less the way it says on the tin when they are stressed, and merge them (pronounce a neutral ...


6

After a couple of days of thinking over it all I have finally decided to put down the whole story of кы, гы, хы the way I understand it. My story will begin with what the answer by Quassnoi begins, with some additions, but then it will continue, from the point when Quassnoi stopped. It will be long, it will require close reading, and it will be very ...


5

In Russian stresses are used only in books for foreign learner, dictionaries and academic papers when necessary. If we are talking about Russian - and not Cyrillic in general - this kind of accentuation exist only for vowels, that is, exactly for the list you've mentioned: а́, е́, и́, о́, у́, ы́, э́, ю́, я́. Yes, all these letter can have uppercased ...


5

General rule is that unstressed о is pronounced as а. In my perception though it's not exactly а but something in between.


5

The difference between и and ы after consonants in Russian is not phonematic, and neither is the difference between palatalized and non-palatalized к, г, х. You can probably find some degenerate minimal pairs for the latter, like тот кот / то ткёт, or aforementioned киш / кыш for that matter, but that's about it. Old Russian did have кы, гы, хы and didn't ...


5

I presume you really care about how Russian “о” is pronounced, not how it’s spelled in English transliteration (which isn’t fixed, but varies depending on who’s doing the transliteration; it looks like you’re using a transliteration that tries to mimic the variation in pronunciation of “о”, which is a bit unusual). Briefly, the way to work out how “о” is ...


3

You will also hardly find гы, хы syllables. The common quality of these phonemes is that к, г, х are заднеязычные согласные and they followed the same patterns of phonological changes as they (the changes) happened in Old Russian language. Apparently, about a thousand years ago the situation was quite different: The full PDF is here Unfortunately, some ...


2

If here spelling means what it usually means, i.e. orthography, mostly we spell o and pronounce a in unstressed positions. It is spelled молоко and said [малако], it's simple. As for the rules of writing, we mostly preserve the stem vowels. We can check them knowing other words with the same stem, where the o is stressed. If there are no such words, ...


2

Most Russian consonants form pairs “hard” versus “soft”, in phonetic terminology it's plain/non-palatalized vs. palatalized, for example т vs. ть, н vs. нь, etc. These pairs in IPA look like this: /t/ vs. /tʲ/, /n/ vs. /nʲ/. The small j (ʲ) marks consonant palatalization: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palatalization_(phonetics) Consonants that can be ...


2

The general rule is: seeing "soft vowel" Е, Ё, И, Ю, Я, one should: If the previous letter is a consonant, choose its "soft" (palatalized) variant. Otherwise, add [j] (as in English: yard, yellow, youth, may, toy...) before the vowel unless it is "И". Choose front allophone of the vowel: Е - [e]; Ё - [ø]; И - [i]; Ю - [y]; Я - ...


2

The missing piece of puzzle is that when it's pronounced like "a", "o", "e" or "u" correspondingly, the preceding consonant is palatalised (softened). Таня is not pronounced "Tanya". Soft consonants are tricky for someone who has no experience with them, that's why quite often, when they are taught, we ...


1

However, under pronounciation it says: [nʲɪˈva] Because IPA was not designed for Russian language, it is intended for English only. That's why they use this "ʲ" sign even where there is no /j/ sound. It indicates the consonant /n/ is soft. You should learn and use the Russian transcription system, called "phonetic analysis" (фонетический ...


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