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13

Подруга is a feminine of "a friend", друг and can mean, depending on context, both: either just a friend or a girlfriend (though this is figurative and obsolete). Девушка is a girl from the age of puberty to the womanhood. The other meaning is girlfriend indeed but keep in ming that this can not be used to talk about dating someone who is in her, say, ...


8

As a native Russian speaker, I wanted to drop a couple of comments... Девушка means "girlfriend" if and only if it comes with a possessive (pro)noun, for example: "моя девушка", "Васина девушка", "Девушка брата". Regarding the obsolescence of подруга with the semantics of "girlfriend", I would rather disagree. A wise and cautious man keeps the word in his ...


7

This is the first line of a spiritual chant called Стих плача Иосифа Прекраснаго, егда продаша братия его во Египет ("A verse of lamentation of Joseph the Most Beautiful when his brethren sold him into Egypt"). It means "to whom shall I tell of my sorrow". Повем here is a rendition of the Church Slavonic form повѣмь ("I will tell", literally "I will let ...


6

This verb accepts both accusative and dative, but its meaning depends on the case used. повредить кому-нибудь (чему-нибудь) means "to hurt or harm smb./smth.", as opposed to "to help smb./smth.". This is about indirect, circumstantial or long-term damage. повредить что-нибудь means "to damage something". This is rarely if ever ...


6

First of all you are misunderstanding the term a bit. Normally you would say азиат for Asian and южанин for Southern which would be neutral. On the other hand чурка in modern Russian stands for highly insulting reference to anyone Turkish- or Persian- looking. Can also be sometimes used as a standin for "not white people" or "not Russian", again insulting. ...


5

I think the most exact translation would be, amusingly, "had a crush on" that princess. That is, sudden romantic feelings.


5

1. In addition to Quassnoi's reply it can be said that повредить + Dative WITHOUT Accusative (unlike in my example below) means to (cause/inflict) harm, whereas повредить + Dative WITH Accusative (like in my example below) means to damage According to my experience in the sense of to (cause/inflict) harm (that is without a direct object) it is the ...


4

To answer a half of your question, "computer science" is typically (after German and French, I guess) referred to in Russian as информатика. There is, actually, a thin veil of differences between possible terms. Computer science, used as a direct loan from English, is specially about computers. Duh. Информатика, the standard word in, e.g. German for the ...


4

When you want to point on something or somebody вот офис - here is the office (point to office with your hand or say at the end of excursion), вот зефир - here is the marshmallow (point to marshmallow with your hand or give somebody a plate with marshmallow), вот эта девушка here is the girl (show the girl on a smartphone), вот, возьми чашку в шкафу - take ...


3

usage of Добрый and Доброе depends on the gender of the noun, which this adjective agrees to. For example Утро is of neutral gender (Оно моё утро), so we should use Доброе, but День is of masculine gender (Он мой день), so we use Добрый. Доброй is slightly more complicated, as V.V. already stated, it is in genitive case with feminine noun. To summarize, ...


2

"Which of these should I use if I'm talking about a coworker of mine?" This part of the original question was left unanswered. A female coworker is called "сотрудница", or you can say "девушка с моей работы" for a young lady, and "женщина с моей работы" for an older one.


2

What we wish before going to bed is спокойной ночи (good night but to be precise "quiet night"). Доброй ночи ("kind " meaning "good and quiet ") is the same, but to my mind sounds poetically. But perhaps it's personal. The phrase is an abbreviation from Я желаю вам/тебе спокойной/доброй ночи. So желаю (чего?)+ genitive case (добрая ночь nominative – ...


2

The word чурка meant a piece of wood / log, probably after that, the чурка came to mean an insult "Тупой как пень".


2

It is not quite Russian, it is Old Slavonic. A more understandable for Russian version will be поведаю, and the most Russian is расскажу. "Whom can I tell about my sorrow?"


2

This word is written as "реабилитация" Morphologically looks like ре-а-би-ли-та́-ци-я This word has two meanings: 1. restoration of human rights 2. Human recovery after surgery / injury


2

My idea (which I, however, can not properly substantiate) is that the word "чурка" originally meant "a stump of wood" and could be used as a generic prerogative term for a person. Later, in XIX century, it had become popular when disparaging Turkish people because of easy rhyming ("турки-чурки") and when the animosity towards Ottoman Empire was high. There ...


1

From my personal experience (as russian from Kazahstan) the meaning beheid the word "чурка" is being stupid/dumb/slow. People from soviet asia (geographically) were often from country side, had less education and often had troubles speaking or even understanding russian language und thus in the eyes of russians they seem dump/stupid. We have a ...


1

Is it really necessary to deep dive into such nuances for a person learning Russian? Повредить is in most cases used in accusative case and in most cases is used with inanimate objects. Like: Повредить окно, повредить двигатель, повредить плечо, повредить растение. Я случайно повредил одно из окон в своей спальне I personally don't think it can be said '...


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