The first Russian Emperor Peter I actually studied in what is modern-day Netherlands and was very inspired among other things, by the navy. Coming back to Russia he initiated the creation of the Russian naval fleet ("флот" is also a Dutch word by the way) - for the lack of local naval specialists, some foreign specialists had been hired. Also, a noticeable amount of Russian students went to study in the Netherlands.
Just as nowadays, originally-English terminology prevails in Russian IT slang, Dutch words found their way into nautical terminology. For example:
гавань haven (Dutch, not English);
мачта mast (Dutch, not English);
рейд (anchorage) reede;
and various other more obscure or specialized words.
At the beginning of the 18th century, the Netherlands was one of the most noticeable foreign influences in the Russian court, hence other terminology (not necessarily maritime) was adopted as well.
Also, as a side-note, some of the words you've mentioned were actually adopted from German as far as I know, but the mix-up is totally understandable ;)