Well, first of all, I find that this question is not the best example of questions we should ask, since "most important features" of pronunciation is something one can hardly describe in one answer. I can try to provide some links, for example, here's one on the most common stress patterns in Russian, but, once again, I repeat it is very difficult to cover all aspects in one answer.
It looks like you are seeking something like Received Pronunciation, the standard accent of Standard English in Great Britain.
In Russia the usage of language norms is recommended by the Ministry of Education.
Last regulatory document on language issues (or one of the last one, if I've missed something) is приказ Министерства образования и науки Российской Федерации (Минобрнауки России) от 8 июня 2009 г. N 195 "Об утверждении списка грамматик, словарей и справочников, содержащих нормы современного русского литературного языка при его использовании в качестве государственного языка Российской Федерации".
This act is basically a list of dictionaries considered to be an etalon reference. This list includes, among other dictionaries, "Словарь ударений русского языка".
What does this act means from the practical point of view is that all official tests and exams are "synced" with this list of dictionaries. If it is said in this dictionaries that this very word is written this very way, than there is no room for dispute left.
Pronunciation is something different. In USSR times there existed so-called "Словарь ударений для работников радио и телевидения", and in the country where any type of broadcasting was under government control this dictionary, as well as any other regulative norms about pronunciation was de-facto an indisputable regulatory document.
Though this dictionary continues to exist and to evolve nowadays, there is no such thing as regulating pronunciation in global context, even speaking about governmental TV and radio. I mean there is no governmental body which, say, penalties mispronunciation. In each separate case, it's all up to the local regulatory norm of this very editorial board.
It is worth mentioning that all this pronunciation norms are mainly about correct forms of words, not about neglecting any kind of dialectal differences. Russian stress patterns in words are often complicated even for native speakers. If you kill somebody who is mispronouncing a word, Russia quickly turns into an unmanned desert.
It is also worth mentioning that dialectal differences in modern Russian, though still existing, are in no way as crucial as Norwegian, German, British English, or even French. This also applies to pronunciation.